Start Up No.1807: Ukraine’s electric bike warriors, touchscreens v drivers, China’s Uyghur data revealed, Clegg’s metaverse, and more


The original Pong game from Atari was hugely successful, but how many lines of code do you think it had – ten, a hundred, a thousand? CC-licensed photo by Axel Tregoning on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. Beep boop boop. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Ukraine is using quiet electric bikes to haul anti-tank weapons • Motherboard

Matthew Gault:

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The Ukrainian military is using stealthy electric bikes modified to carry next-generation light anti-tank weapons (NLAWS) to fight Russia.

Soldiers on electric bikes have been spotted across Ukraine since the early days of the war, mostly on ELEEK brand bikes. e-bikes are fast and, critically, much quieter than a gas powered bike. They allow soldiers to perform quick guard patrols or move swiftly into position.

On Telegram last week, pictures surfaced of the Delfast branded bikes that had been modified to carry massive anti-tank weapons. The two photos showed the e-bike modified with a crate on the back and a huge missile launcher poking from the back.

The e-bikes are used for transporting the launchers; the anti-tank weapons aren’t fired from the back of the bikes. The quiet design and fast speed—a Delfast can reach speeds up to 50 mph—allow the bikes to move NLAWS into position and quickly flee once fired.

Both Delfast and ELEEK are Ukrainian companies. When reached for comment, representatives of Delfast in the United States denied it had sold Ukraine any of its bikes. “Delfast continues to support the people of Ukraine. We are working with governments and the larger tech community to end this war,” a representative of Delfast in the U.S. told Motherboard. “We have not sold Delfast bikes or made modifications to our e-bikes to support any military action. We are also donating 5% of all sales to fund humanitarian efforts in Ukraine.”

This is technically true: Delfast has not sold the Ukrainian military any of its bikes. It gave them away.

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It’s the silence: if they were carried on normal motorcycles, the noise would be a clue from miles away. The first war where electric vehicles become a key player?
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Touch screens in cars solve a problem we didn’t have • The New York Times

Jay Caspian King:

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The question of whether touch screens are good or bad was broached way back in 1986, when Buick put something called the Graphic Control Center in its Riviera line. What’s particularly striking about the Graphic Control Center, a nine-inch touch screen in the center of the dashboard, was that it wasn’t all that functionally different from today’s versions.

You could turn the fan up and down, you could set your car’s temperature, and you could change the radio station. There was a five-band sound equalizer that you could use to turn up the bass in your speakers. (The funniest, and perhaps most useful, feature was the Reminder function, which was like a to-do list for the driver. Here’s a video showing all the functions.)

But by 1990, Buick had abandoned the Graphic Control Center after drivers complained that every small adjustment to the car’s temperature or radio caused them to take their eyes off the road while they prodded a touch screen.

Thirty-two years later, touch screens are not only back but mostly standard. The complaints are the same: The screens are equally useless and enraging. Distracted, frustrated drivers, of course, are dangers to themselves and everyone else on the road.

The only difference now is that the evidence of the effects that glowing screens have on automotive safety is overwhelming. In 2017 the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety found that performing tasks on a car’s screen took a driver’s attention away from the road for more than 40 seconds.

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As he says, the incentives are obvious for the car makers: touchscreens are cheap and easier to install than mechanical panels. Those incentives don’t work for drivers, though.
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The faces from China’s Uyghur detention camps • BBC News

John Sudworth:

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Thousands of photographs from the heart of China’s highly secretive system of mass incarceration in Xinjiang, as well as a shoot-to-kill policy for those who try to escape, are among a huge cache of data hacked from police computer servers in the region.

The Xinjiang Police Files, as they’re being called, were passed to the BBC earlier this year. After a months-long effort to investigate and authenticate them, they can be shown to offer significant new insights into the internment of the region’s Uyghurs and other Turkic minorities.

Their publication coincides with the recent arrival in China of the United Nations Human Rights Commissioner, Michelle Bachelet, for a controversial visit to Xinjiang, with critics concerned that her itinerary will be under the tight control of the government.

The cache reveals, in unprecedented detail, China’s use of “re-education” camps and formal prisons as two separate but related systems of mass detention for Uyghurs – and seriously calls into question its well-honed public narrative about both.

The government’s claim that the re-education camps built across Xinjiang since 2017 are nothing more than “schools” is contradicted by internal police instructions, guarding rosters and the never-before-seen images of detainees.

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Proof, if it were needed, that hacking can be a force for good. Expect that this will reveal much more about what has been happening. As with Tibet, the Chinese Communist Party flattens difference and demands obedience, and exacts the highest price for not obeying.
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Someone stole Seth Green’s Bored Ape and star of his new NFT show • Buzzfeed News

Sarah Emerson:

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Actor and producer Seth Green was robbed of several NFTs this month after succumbing to a phishing scam that inadvertently threw a monkey wrench into the plan for his new animated series. The forthcoming show was developed from characters in Green’s expansive NFT collection, but in light of the recent hack, the project’s blatant crypto optimism has become a tragically ironic reminder of the industry’s shadier side.

On Saturday, Green teased a trailer for White Horse Tavern at the NFT conference VeeCon. A twee comedy, the show seems to be based on the question, “What if your friendly neighborhood bartender was Bored Ape Yacht Club #8398?” In an interview with entrepreneur and crypto hype man Gary Vaynerchuk, Green said he wanted to imagine a universe where “it doesn’t matter what you look like, what only matters is your attitude.”

Unfortunately for Green, what also matters is copyright law. And when the actor’s NFT collection was pilfered by a scammer in early May, he lost the commercial rights to his show’s cartoon protagonist, a scruffy Bored Ape named Fred Simian, whose likeness and usage rights now belong to someone else.

“I bought that ape in July 2021, and have spent the last several months developing and exploiting the IP to make it into the star of this show,” Green told Vaynerchuk. “Then days before — his name is Fred by the way — days before he’s set to make his world debut, he’s literally kidnapped.” Green did not respond to a tweet from BuzzFeed News regarding the show.

…If the current owner “wanted to cause trouble for Seth Green they probably could, because that person becomes the holder” of the commercial usage rights, said Daniel Dubin, an intellectual property attorney at Alston & Bird LLP.

NFT copyright law can be “a particularly thorny issue,” Dubin said, and has only begun to be tested in court.

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Having watched some of the trailer, it’s hard not to think that the phisher has done us all a favour. But look, it’s hardly as if drawing a new, slightly different cartoon figure is beyond the wit of humans, is it? The whole thing is bonkers.
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2012: The Great Depression and the rise of the refrigerator • Pacific Standard

Matt Novak:

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When I moved to Los Angeles and began my search for an apartment I was a little surprised by the fact that a refrigerator wasn’t included with most of the units I toured. In every other city where I’ve ever lived, the average apartment always included a refrigerator with the cost of rent. I was only looking for a one-bedroom apartment, but I was expecting that this was the norm everywhere for the most basic of apartments.

When I asked the manager of the apartment building I wound up renting from why there was no refrigerator, she explained that the property only supplies “the essentials.” When I pointed out that the building came with an underground parking space, she just stared at me blankly. It was in her silence that I came to understand a subtle difference between Los Angeles and the rest of the country: parking is essential, keeping perishable food fresh is not.

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The puzzle – in 2012, 2017 (when the article was updated) and now in 2022, when the LA Times has returned to the question – is why so many rental apartments in Los Angeles specifically don’t have refrigerators. The answer seems to be “because things just went that way”.
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Pong: the no-code video game : r/EngineeringPorn

“Jedi_Lucky”:

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The original Pong video game had no code and was built using hardware circuitry. Here’s the original schematics from Atari

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Amazing. The logic is a few AND and OR and NOR and NAND gates. No stored program at all. (More details at falstad.com, which takes you through each part of the system.) A fabulous piece of creativity.
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Making the metaverse: what it is, how it will be built, and why it matters • Medium

Nick Clegg:

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The word ‘metaverse’ is actually a little misleading, as ‘verse’ implies you are transported to another ‘universe’. Of course, there is escapism inherent in using some of these technologies — like an immersive gaming experience. But the metaverse is much more than that. It’s ultimately about finding ever more ways for the benefits of the online world to be felt in our daily lives — enriching our experiences, not replacing them.

Imagine, for example, how useful it could be to wear glasses that give you virtual directions in your line of sight, or immediate translations of street signs in foreign languages. Or even make it possible for you to have a conversation with someone who is thousands of miles away as a three-dimensional hologram in your living room instead of a head and shoulders on a flat screen. And, as I will go on to explain in more detail, the potential societal benefits — particularly in education and healthcare — are vast, from helping med students practice surgical techniques to bringing school lessons to life in new and exciting ways.

As someone in their mid-50s who has spent most of my career in British and European politics rather than Silicon Valley, it wasn’t until I started using some of the early products that I started to properly grasp the potential. For several months now my close team has been meeting weekly in Meta’s Horizon Workrooms app, in which you interact with colleagues as avatars in virtual meeting rooms, complete with whiteboards, boardroom tables, wall art, and futuristic cityscapes visible through the windows. Yes, we are meeting as stylized representations of ourselves, but there really is something about the sense of place and space, and the directional sound in particular, that makes the meetings feel much more human than talking to thumbnail faces on a laptop.

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Realising the “societal benefits” in education and healthcare would be very expensive: how much will it cost to equip a class, let alone a school? But Clegg’s only getting warmed up here – the article is very long (“31 min read”, says Medium). Something of a kitchen sink approach to the topic.
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How ‘Zuck Bucks’ saved the 2020 election — and fuelled the Big Lie • Protocol

Issie Lapowsky:

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If Mark Zuckerberg could have imagined the worst possible outcome of his decision to insert himself into the 2020 election, it might have looked something like the scene that unfolded inside Mar-a-Lago on a steamy evening in early April.

There in a gilded ballroom-turned-theater, MAGA world icons including Kellyanne Conway, Corey Lewandowski, Hope Hicks and former president Donald Trump himself were gathered for the premiere of “Rigged: The Zuckerberg Funded Plot to Defeat Donald Trump.”

The 41-minute film, produced by Citizens United’s David Bossie, accuses Zuckerberg of buying the election for President Biden. Its smoking gun? The very public $419 million in grants Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan donated to local and state election officials in 2020 to help them prepare for the unprecedented challenge of pulling off an election in a pandemic. On the film’s poster, Zuckerberg is pictured smugly dropping a crisp Benjamin into a ballot box.

Suffice it to say, this was not exactly what Zuckerberg had in mind.

The Facebook founder had tried in vain to make his grand entrance into the election appear impartial. He didn’t plow tens of millions of dollars into a single candidate’s super PAC, like his buddy Dustin Moskovitz did for Biden. He didn’t spread his wealth between Senate campaigns, like his other buddy Peter Thiel is doing right now.

He did it the Zuckerberg way. The Facebook way. Instead of explicitly picking a party — God forbid he be the arbiter of anything — he threw open the vault to his vast fortune and said: Have at it, America. He offered grants to any election official who wanted one, so long as they spent it on what a lot of people would consider mundane essentials that make it easier and safer for everyone to vote: ballot sorters, drop boxes, poll workers and — because it was 2020 — hand sanitizer.

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Beautifully reported piece of work, which goes to show that in the US in particular no good deed goes unpunished.
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The world’s car buyers are ready to go electric, new data shows • Axios

Joann Muller:

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52% of respondents to Ernst & Young’s (EY) annual Mobility Consumer Index who are looking to buy a car want an EV, according to the survey of 13,000 people in 18 countries.

That’s a leap of 22 percentage points in two years, and the first time that EV interest exceeded 50%, the company said.

Buyers in Italy (73%), China (69%) and South Korea (63%) were the most interested. Consumers in Australia (38%) and the US (29%) showed less interest.

Government policies are probably driving consumer choices in many markets.
• The European Union, for example, plans to ban sales of conventional gas-powered vehicles by 2035
• China wants 40% of vehicles sold to be electric by 2030 and has used buyer subsidies and other policy measures to support the transition
• In the US, President Biden set a target for 50% of new cars to be electric by 2030. But with gas prices spiking, a proposal to boost tax credits for consumers who choose EVs is now getting congressional pushback
• For the first time in the poll, 34% of respondents identified rising penalties on conventional cars as a key factor in their purchase decision, E&Y found
• And 88% say they would pay more for an EV.

One issue that’s starting to fade: range anxiety, especially for second-time EV owners, the survey showed. As battery technology advances and access to charging infrastructure improves, such worries will disappear, said EY.

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But of course the US, one of the biggest polluters from vehicles, would be getting “congressional pushback” against proposals that would encourage less pollution. We’d expect nothing less in a country that anyway shows less interest in EVs than pretty much anywhere else. The full report has other detail – notably that people don’t want to go back on public transport post-Covid.
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1806: Clearview AI fined £7.5m, windfall tax on the way, is GDPR working?, crypto and race, Apple’s ‘DIY’ kit, and more


You might think that you can’t get in touch with Facebook’s customer service, but VR headset users can demonstrate how that’s wrong. CC-licensed photo by dronepicrdronepicr on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 10 links for you. Unrecognisable. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


UK fines Clearview just under $10m for privacy breaches • TechCrunch

Natasha Lomas:

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The U.K.’s data protection watchdog has confirmed a penalty for the controversial facial recognition company, Clearview AI — announcing a fine of just over £7.5m today for a string of breaches of local privacy laws.

The watchdog has also issued an enforcement notice, ordering Clearview to stop obtaining and using the personal data of UK residents that is publicly available on the internet; and telling it to delete the information of UK residents from its systems.

The US company has amassed a database of 20 billion+ facial images by scraping data off the public internet, such as from social media services, to create an online database that it uses to power an AI-based identity-matching service which it sells to entities such as law enforcement. The problem is Clearview has never asked individuals whether it can use their selfies for that. And in many countries it has been found in breach of privacy laws.

…One thing to note is the level of fine is considerably lower than the £17M+ the ICO announced last fall in its provisional order against Clearview. We asked the regulator about the reduction — and it told us that reductions following a notice of intent to fine may be related to representations from the company, which it may consider before deciding on whether to issue the organisation with a final monetary penalty notice.

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Could be academic if Clearview refuses to pay, which it might well do given that it doesn’t have any operations in the UK now. Also unclear how the ICO will enforce the deletion of UK citizens from its database. How would it know? How would the ICO know? Meanwhile, a system closely resembling it is being used by Ukrainian soldiers to identify Russian prisoners of war. Not always a bad thing?
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Sunak orders plan for windfall tax on electricity generators • Financial Times

George Parker, Jim Pickard and Nathalie Thomas:

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Chancellor Rishi Sunak has ordered officials to draw up plans for a possible windfall tax on more than £10bn of excess profits by electricity generators, including wind farm operators, on top of a hit on North Sea oil and gas producers.

Treasury officials are working on a scheme that would go well beyond Labour’s original windfall tax plan, as Sunak looks to raise billions of pounds of financial support for households struggling with soaring energy bills.

“North Sea oil and gas producers are only half the picture,” said one government insider. “The other half is that high gas prices have led to some pretty substantial windfall profits for all electricity generation.”

By pulling big power generators such as SSE, ScottishPower, EDF Energy and RWE into the scope of any windfall tax Sunak would sharply increase the revenue it brings in.

Sunak and Boris Johnson urgently want to set out measures to address rising energy bills and how to pay for them, officials say. An announcement could come this week or after the Jubilee bank holiday in early June.

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Adding in the generators isn’t going to be popular (with the generators), and will puzzle people: don’t the generators have to pay for the source of the fuel? If they’re using renewables, those have substantial paybacks – a wind farm isn’t cheaper in year 1 than a gas turbine.

But this (in general) has been predictable for weeks.
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How GDPR is failing • WIRED

Matt Burgess:

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Despite clear enforcement problems [detailed earlier in the article], GDPR has had an incalculable effect on data practices broadly. EU countries have made decisions in thousands of local cases and issued guidance to organizations to say how they should use people’s data. Spain’s LaLiga soccer league was fined after its app spied on users, retailer H&M was fined in Germany after it saved details about employees’ personal lives, the Netherlands’ tax body was fined over its use of a ‘blacklist,’ and these are just a handful of the successful cases.

Some of GDPR’s impact is also hidden—the law isn’t just about fines and ordering companies to change—and it has improved company behaviors. “If you compare the awareness about cybersecurity, about data protection, about privacy, as it looked like 10 years ago and it looks today, these are completely different worlds,” says Wojciech Wiewiórowski, the European Data Protection Supervisor, who oversees GDPR cases against European institutions, such as Europol.

Companies have been put off using people’s data in dubious ways, experts say, when they wouldn’t have thought twice about it pre-GDPR. One recent study estimated that the number of Android apps on Google’s Play store has dropped by a third since the introduction of GDPR, citing better privacy protections. “More and more businesses have allocated significant budgets to doing data protection compliance,” says Hazel Grant, head of the privacy, security, and information group at London-headquartered law firm Fieldfisher. Grant says that when GDPR decisions are made—such as Austria’s decision to make the use of Google Analytics unlawful—companies are concerned about what it means for them. “Four or five years ago, that enforcement wouldn’t have happened,” Grant says. “And if it had happened, maybe a few data protection lawyers would have known about it—it wouldn’t have been out there with clients coming to us saying we need advice on this.”

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From everything in the article, “failing” overstates it. “Struggling” might be a better word; regulators have big backlogs of cases, and some of the big companies are a bit unsure how well they comply. But if it has improved privacy, that has to be a plus.
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Hello? Hello? Is this Facebook? Anybody there? (Nope.) • WSJ

Kirsten Grind:

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You thought you had to wait forever to speak with a customer service representative? Facebook and Instagram serve nearly 3 billion users a day with a help desk that numbers closer to zero.

So pity John Bacon, a 72-year-old retiree of Cleveland, Ohio. Facebook disabled his account after it was hacked last year, and he expected to speak with someone about getting it up and running.

Mr. Bacon hunted for a customer help line or an email address and learned what many others before him have discovered: There are none. “I have never been able to speak to a human,” he said of what turned out to be a monthslong quest to restore his Facebook account.

Users of the free services in the empire of Meta Platforms Inc., which includes WhatsApp, sometimes go to great and unusual lengths to get help. Few succeed.

Customer service at TikTok and Twitter is about the same. Some Twitter users hope Elon Musk’s purchase of the company will help. “I beg you to please look at customer service,” one user recently tweeted at Mr. Musk, saying he had to send a letter to Twitter headquarters via FedEx for a minor problem.

Mr. Bacon said he patiently followed Facebook’s instructions. He changed his password, twice, and provided identification. Nothing happened.

…Meta hasn’t expanded its customer service to accommodate its billions of users because of the enormous scale and expense of the undertaking, according to people familiar with the company. It also has viewed a call center as its own security risk, a potential path for bad actors to gain access to accounts for criminal or other nefarious purposes.

…One idea that spread last year on Reddit and Quora involved buying a roughly $300 Oculus virtual-reality headset. Oculus, which is owned by Meta, has a dedicated customer-service line for the devices.

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Which turned out to be the least-cost path for Mr Bacon.

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Expert: monkeypox likely spread by sex at two raves in Europe • AP News

Maria Cheng:

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A leading adviser to the World Health Organization described the unprecedented outbreak of monkeypox in developed countries as “a random event” that appears to have been caused by sexual activity at two recent raves in Europe.

Dr. David Heymann, who formerly headed WHO’s emergencies department, told The Associated Press that the leading theory to explain the spread of the disease was sexual transmission at raves held in Spain and Belgium. Monkeypox has not previously triggered widespread outbreaks beyond Africa, where it is endemic in animals.

“We know monkeypox can spread when there is close contact with the lesions of someone who is infected, and it looks like sexual contact has now amplified that transmission,” said Heymann.

That marks a significant departure from the disease’s typical pattern of spread in central and western Africa, where people are mainly infected by animals like wild rodents and primates and outbreaks have not spilled across borders.

Health officials say most of the known cases in Europe have been among men who have sex with men, but anyone can be infected through close contact with a sick person, their clothing or bedsheets. Scientists say it will be difficult to disentangle whether the spread is being driven by sex or merely close contact.

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OK, I did not have this on my bingo card. What’s unusual is how contagious this version seems to be.
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Why the crypto crash hit black Americans hard • The Economist

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The “crypto-crash” hit millions of investors. Some lost their life savings. The turmoil may have a particularly big impact on black Americans. They tend to earn less and have less savings than their white counterparts, on average. A survey released last month by Ariel Investments and Charles Schwab, two financial-services companies, found that 25% of black Americans own cryptocurrency, compared with 15% of white Americans. Young African-Americans are even more likely to have invested: almost two-fifths of those under 40 own cryptocurrency, compared with 29% of whites.

The Ariel-Schwab survey found that black respondents were more likely to be both new to investing and highly enthusiastic about crypto: 23% said excitement about cryptocurrency was the reason they started investing; just 10% of white respondents said the same. Black Americans are almost three times as likely to choose cryptocurrency as their first investment (11% versus 4%) and were twice as likely to describe it as the best investment overall (8% versus 4%). The survey also found that black Americans were less likely to invest in conventional financial products—meaning their portfolios may be overexposed to crypto.

Many people are drawn into the cryptosphere by the thrill of its high risks and potential for high reward. But black Americans are typically cautious investors: surveys indicate that they have a lower appetite than average for risk. They are, however, almost twice as likely to describe cryptocurrencies as a safe investment. Fully 30% of black investors believe crypto is regulated by the government (14% of white investors thought the same). In reality it is almost entirely unregulated.

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Would guess that everyone who didn’t already know this is surprised by it. (Via Sophie Warnes’s Fair Warning.)
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DC attorney general Karl A. Racine sues Mark Zuckerberg for misleading privacy practices • The Washington Post

Cat Zakrzewski:

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DC Attorney General Karl A. Racine (D) on Monday sued Mark Zuckerberg, seeking to hold the CEO of Facebook parent company Meta liable for data abuses and for misleading Facebook users about their privacy protections.

The suit, filed in DC Superior Court, alleges that Zuckerberg directly participated in decisions that enabled the Trump-allied political consultancy Cambridge Analytica to siphon the personal data of millions of users. Racine sued the company over its data practices in 2018 in a case that is ongoing, but he is now seeking to fine Zuckerberg personally over his role in the events.

“This unprecedented security breach exposed tens of millions of Americans’ personal information, and Mr. Zuckerberg’s policies enabled a multi-year effort to mislead users about the extent of Facebook’s wrongful conduct,” Racine said in a news release. “This lawsuit is not only warranted, but necessary, and sends a message that corporate leaders, including CEOs, will be held accountable for their actions.”

…Racine’s office said this new lawsuit is based on hundreds of thousands of pages of documents that his staff did not have access to until litigation during the Cambridge Analytica suit, including depositions of Facebook employees and other whistleblowers.

…The lawsuit argues that the Cambridge Analytica scandal was the result of Zuckerberg’s vision to open up the Facebook platform to third party developers. It also alleges that he was aware of the potential harms that might result from sharing consumers’ data but failed to act on them. In one email discussing data leakage, Zuckerberg wrote “there is clear risk on the advertiser side,” according to the lawsuit.

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Honestly, this story is from Monday, May 23, 2022. Yes, the FTC settled in for $5bn in 2019. No, I don’t know how Racine is going to justify the tiny number of people in Washington DC who would have been affected for the time and money spent on this.
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YouTube removes more than 9,000 channels relating to Ukraine war • The Guardian

Dan Milmo:

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YouTube has taken down more than 70,000 videos and 9,000 channels related to the war in Ukraine for violating content guidelines, including removal of videos that referred to the invasion as a “liberation mission”.

The platform is hugely popular in Russia, where, unlike some of its US peers, it has not been shut down despite hosting content from opposition figures such as Alexei Navalny. YouTube has also been able to operate in Russia despite cracking down on pro-Kremlin content that has broken guidelines including its major violent events policy, which prohibits denying or trivialising the invasion.

Since the conflict began in February, YouTube has taken down channels including that of the pro-Kremlin journalist Vladimir Solovyov. Channels associated with Russia’s Ministries of Defence and Foreign Affairs have also been temporarily suspended from uploading videos in recent months for describing the war as a “liberation mission”.

YouTube’s chief product officer, Neal Mohan, said: “We have a major violent events policy and that applies to things like denial of major violent events: everything from the Holocaust to Sandy Hook. And of course, what’s happening in Ukraine is a major violent event. And so we’ve used that policy to take unprecedented action.”

In an interview with the Guardian, Mohan added that YouTube’s news content on the conflict had received more than 40m views in Ukraine alone.

“The first and probably most paramount responsibility is making sure that people who are looking for information about this event can get accurate, high-quality, credible information on YouTube,” he said.

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Google’s office has shut, but keeping YouTube going – and filtering the content – remains important. Notable how Twitter and Google have developed policies around “crises” (or “major violent events” in Google’s words).
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Apple shipped me a 79-pound iPhone repair kit to fix a 1.1-ounce battery • The Verge

Sean Hollister:

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Last month, Apple launched its Self-Service Repair program, letting US customers fix broken screens, batteries, and cameras on the latest iPhones using Apple’s own parts and tools for the first time ever. I couldn’t wait. I’d never successfully repaired a phone — and my wife has never let me live down the one time I broke her Samsung Galaxy while using a hair dryer to replace the screen. This time, armed with an official repair manual and genuine parts, I’d make it right.

That Apple would even let me buy those parts, much less read its manuals and rent its tools, is a major change of pace for the company. For years, Apple has been lobbying to suppress right-to-repair policies around the country, with the company accused of doing everything it can to keep customers from repairing their own phones. It’s easy to see this as a huge moment for DIY advocates. But having tried the repair process, I actually can’t recommend it at all — and I have a sneaking suspicion that Apple likes it that way.

The thing you should understand about Apple’s home repair process is that it’s a far cry from traditional DIY if you opt for the kit — which I did, once I saw the repair manual only contains instructions for Apple’s own tools. (You can just buy a battery if you want.)

I expected Apple would send me a small box of screwdrivers, spudgers, and pliers; I own a mini iPhone, after all. Instead, I found two giant Pelican cases — 79 pounds of tools — on my front porch. I couldn’t believe just how big and heavy they were considering Apple’s paying to ship them both ways.

I lugged those cases onto a BART train to San Francisco and dragged them down the streets to our office. Then, I set everything out on a table and got started.

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The machines that Apple hired out are remarkable devices: proper industrial systems. How many does Apple have, one has to wonder?
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New ‘smart’ cheese rinds help fight Parmesan fraud • Food & Wine

Mike Pomranz:

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Like many European products, true “Parmesan” cheese has a protected designation of origin, and according to the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium (the official trade group for the cheese) the amount of fraud is almost as big as product sales: Authentic Parmigiano Reggiano sales are around $2.44bn while fraudulent cheese is a $2.08bn market.

But now, Parmigiano Reggiano has a new high-tech partner to fight against counterfeit cheese and it involves technology you shouldn’t even be able to notice. The Consortium has teamed up with Kaasmerk Matec — a leading producer of casein cheesemarks — and p-Chip — which creates digital tracing technology — to put tiny, food-safe transponders in legitimate wheels of Parmigiano Reggiano.

For the past two decades, Parmigiano Reggiano wheels have already featured a unique alphanumeric tracking code, but now, the Consortium has tested embedding p-Chip micro transponders into the casein label. As the Consortium explains, “The innovation combines food-safe Casein labels with the p-Chip micro transponder — a blockchain crypto-anchor that creates a digital ‘twin’ for physical items. This scannable new food tag is smaller than a grain of salt and highly durable, delivering next-generation visibility and traceability.”

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If they’re smaller than a grain of salt it won’t matter if you swallow it?
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1805: fake news about fake news study, on being married to Musk, TikTok’s booming audience, monkeypox!, and more


The Uber service used to be synonymous with cheap travel, but no longer – and its effects on public transport have been negative. CC-licensed photo by Stock Catalog on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 10 links for you. Not ignoble. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Fake news about our fake news study spread faster than its truth… just as we predicted • Medium

Sinan Aral:

»

recently, Kai Kuperschmidt, a contributing correspondent for Science magazine, and Daniel Engber, a senior editor at The Atlantic, claimed that this study had been debunked and overturned in dramatic fashion by a newer study, published in 2021 by Johan Ugander and Jonas Juul, analyzing the same data. Kuperschmidt wrote, in an article for Science magazine, that our paper “used data on misinformation that had been fact-checked by independent organizations…” and that when Ugander and Juul “factored in this bias, the difference between the speed and reach of false news and true news disappeared.”

Engber picked up on this thread, linked to Kuperschmidt’s article, and tweeted “I love this so much: Remember the Science paper showing that misinformation travels farther and faster on social media than the truth? It was wrong!”

News of the prominent debunking spread like wildfire. Engber’s tweet was retweeted 390 times and liked over 1200 times within a few days. The quote tweets cheerfully glorified the debunking.

Dr Rohin Francis, @MedCrisis on Twitter, tweeted “Absolute classic. That study everyone cited with righteous glee, that misinformation spreads faster than true information, was in fact misinformation.” His quote tweet was retweeted 68 times with over 250 likes.

Unfortunately, for us and for misinformation science, they were all wrong. After fact checking their claims, the journalists discovered that they had been the ones spreading misinformation.
When they talked to Ugander and Juul, they learned that the new study actually confirmed our work and replicated our findings: fake news did reach more people than the truth, on average, and it did so while spreading deeper, faster, and more broadly through layers of connections. They also discovered that we had ourselves had double-checked the generalizability of our results in a separate robustness data set of articles that had never been fact checked, which also confirmed what we had found.

Three separate replications had confirmed our results and, in fact, since we published our paper, many more studies have replicated our findings in a variety of data sets and contexts.

«

As this point about the virality of fake news is pretty crucial to explaining social warming, I’m quite relieved too.
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HSBC suspends head of responsible investing who called climate warnings ‘shrill’ • The Guardian

Kalyeena Makortoff:

»

HSBC has suspended a senior banker after he referred to climate crisis warnings as “unsubstantiated” and “shrill” during a conference speech that has since been denounced by the lender’s chief executive.

Stuart Kirk, who has been HSBC’s head of responsible investing since last July, will remain suspended until the bank completes an internal investigation into the matter.

HSBC came under pressure to fire Kirk after he gave a presentation in London entitled “why investors need not worry about climate risk”, in which he made light of major flooding risks, and complained about having to spend time “looking at something that’s going to happen in 20 or 30 years”.

HSBC declined to comment on Kirk’s suspension, which was first reported by the Financial Times. Kirk did not respond to requests to comment sent via LinkedIn or Twitter.

Kirk’s presentation controversially included slides that said “Unsubstantiated, shrill, partisan, self-serving, apocalyptic warnings are ALWAYS wrong”, while referring to comments made by officials at the UN and Bank of England, who have tried to raise the alarm over global heating.

“Human beings have been fantastic at adapting to change, adapting to climate emergencies, and we will continue to do so,” Kirk told attenders at the Financial Times’ Moral Money conference on Thursday. “Who cares if Miami is six metres underwater in 100 years? Amsterdam has been six metres underwater for ages and that’s a really nice place.”

His comments have sparked a public relations controversy for the bank, which has struggled to burnish its green credentials, despite pledges to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.

«

Wonder what an examination of Kirk’s investment decisions would reveal when it comes to climate-affecting projects, if those are his views. That would filter down to his subordinates, after all.
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September 2010: Elon Musk’s first wife Justine Musk talks their messy divorce • Marie Claire

Justine Musk, in September 2010:

»

By the time eBay bought PayPal in 2002, we had moved to Los Angeles and had our first child, a boy named Nevada Alexander. The sale of PayPal vaulted Elon’s net worth to well over $100 million. The same week, Nevada went down for a nap, placed on his back as always, and stopped breathing. He was 10 weeks old, the age when male infants are most susceptible to SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). By the time the paramedics resuscitated him, he had been deprived of oxygen for so long that he was brain-dead. He spent three days on life support in a hospital in Orange County before we made the decision to take him off it. I held him in my arms when he died.

Elon made it clear that he did not want to talk about Nevada’s death. I didn’t understand this, just as he didn’t understand why I grieved openly, which he regarded as “emotionally manipulative.” I buried my feelings instead, coping with Nevada’s death by making my first visit to an IVF clinic less than two months later. Elon and I planned to get pregnant again as swiftly as possible. Within the next five years, I gave birth to twins, then triplets, and I sold three novels to Penguin and Simon & Schuster. Even so, Nevada’s death sent me on a years-long inward spiral of depression and distraction that would be continuing today if one of our nannies hadn’t noticed me struggling. She approached me with the name of an excellent therapist. Dubious, I gave it a shot. In those weekly sessions, I began to get perspective on what had become my life.

«

She had a serious car accident:

»

Not long after the accident, I sat on our bed with my knees pulled up to my chest and tears in my eyes. I told Elon, in a soft voice that was nonetheless filled with conviction, that I needed our life to change. I didn’t want to be a sideline player in the multimillion-dollar spectacle of my husband’s life. I wanted equality. I wanted partnership. I wanted to love and be loved, the way we had before he made all his millions.

Elon agreed to enter counseling, but he was running two companies and carrying a planet of stress. One month and three sessions later, he gave me an ultimatum: Either we fix this marriage today or I will divorce you tomorrow, by which I understood he meant, Our status quo works for me, so it should work for you. He filed for divorce the next morning. I felt numb, but strangely relieved.

«

If you need to understand Musk, this might help.
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Twitter announces crisis misinformation policy in Ukraine • Protocol

Issie Lapowsky:

»

Twitter will begin taking action against misinformation in crisis situations, the company said Thursday. The new policy will be immediately applied to misinformation surrounding the war in Ukraine.

Given the way misinformation and disinformation have been weaponized in that war, it’s an important update. But it’s also a challenging one for Twitter to pull off, and not just because Twitter’s would-be new owner believes the company should let all legal speech stand. It also puts Twitter in a position of defining what’s true — or not true — in often chaotic situations and, perhaps even more challenging, deciding what constitutes a crisis to begin with.

“During periods of crisis like international armed conflict, public health emergencies and large-scale natural disasters, we find misinformation can undermine public trust and cause further harm to already vulnerable communities,” Yoel Roth, Twitter’s head of Safety and Integrity, said on a call with reporters. Roth said the company eventually plans to deploy this policy in “any situation in which there’s a widespread threat to life, physical safety, health or basic subsistence,” but that the company was starting off in Ukraine because of “the unique role that disinformation has played in this conflict.”

To figure out what’s true and not, Roth said, Twitter is relying on public information from multiple “credible sources,” including humanitarian groups, news organizations, conflict-monitoring services and open-source intelligence investigators. Once Twitter determines that a given post is misinformation, it’ll stop amplifying and recommending it, and will add warning notices that users have to click through in order to view the tweet.

«

Will it shut down the Russian bots? That could make a difference.
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TikTok boom • No Mercy / No Malice

Scott Galloway:

»

Just as algorithms require large pools of signals, content production requires large pools of talent. For a hundred years, video talent congregated in a few geographies: Los Angeles, Hong Kong, London, and Mumbai. Every HR manager knows there are talented people populating every corner of the Earth. But geography still matters, and the majority of platforms and talent do not find each other. YouTube and Instagram recruited talent faster than any business in history. Until TikTok. Fifty-five% of TikTok users create their own videos on the platform. That’s a talent pool the depth of the Mariana Trench: 870 million people, or 1,000 times the number of people employed by the entire film and TV industry.

The world’s largest reserve of talent also has a near-zero cost of extraction. The top eight U.S. media firms will spend $115bn on original content this year. Netflix alone will spend $17bn. TikTok produces its content for almost nothing —  the company’s payout to top creators is a rounding error, at $200m per year. The primary incentive it offers is social expression, and the company’s A&R team is the app itself. Users are never more than a few taps from creating their own content — TikTok streamlines the creation process, with an option to create a video at the center of its UI, simple tools for recording and manipulating those videos, and a huge library of licensed music available for the creator’s use. On YouTube and Netflix, there are creators and consumers. On TikTok, they are the same person.

…The biggest mistake we make in marketing is believing choice is a benefit. No, it’s a tax. Consumers don’t want more choices, they want more confidence in the choices presented. TikTok has taken this to a new level by eliminating the burden of choice entirely. Its content is a continuous stream of videos where the decisions are made for you. Your only choice: what not to watch.

«

It’s worth making the point again about TikTok: it’s utterly unlike the networks that we – well, adults – think we’re used to. It’s wiping the floor with Facebook for attention. I’d guess nobody could describe exactly how its algorithm functions; only what the desired outcomes it aims for are.
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The Decade of Cheap Rides is over • Slate

Henry Grabar:

»

Average Uber prices rose 92% between 2018 and 2021, according to data from Rakuten; a separate analysis reports an increase of 45% between 2019 and 2022. Both Uber and Lyft have added a surcharge for riders that helps drivers account for high fuel prices. And all that was before last week’s ultimatum.

Think of it as a city-transportation parallel to what economists are calling the end of the “era of free money,” as interest rates finally rise. It’s the end of a decade in which we changed our systems, our habits, even our architecture, around the assumption that we could be driven around for cheap.

The cynical assumption was always that Uber was burning all that investor cash in order to corner the market. Once it killed off car service, taxi cartels, and its ride-hail rivals, the company would stop charging riders less than it was paying drivers and prices would have to go up. On Monday morning, an Uber from Manhattan to JFK Airport was $100—nearly double the fixed yellow cab rate. But good luck finding a yellow cab!

The Uber-taxicab showdown is how most people conceive of Uber’s market-swallowing impact, but the Decade of Cheap Rides had more profound effects on how we live and get around. The failure of car-sharing companies like Maven and car2go is one example of how all that subsidy distorted the market, quashed business models that might otherwise have thrived, and changed habits that might have otherwise endured. It did this for the good—reducing the size of parking lots, suppressing drunken driving—and for the bad, increasing car ownership and traffic congestion.

One well-known consequence of the rider subsidy is the decline in public transit. One study estimates the arrival of Uber and Lyft in a city decreases rail ridership by 1.29% and bus ridership by 1.7% each year. In San Francisco, where Uber was founded, the authors estimate Uber has decreased bus ridership by 12.7%. A second study concluded a 5.4% decline in bus ridership in midsize cities. A third study clocked the decline at 8.9%. A related Uber phenomenon has been a sizable increase in downtown traffic congestion.

Those effects might reverse if rising prices push people back onto the bus. But other changes have more sticking power: The assumption that Uber would debut flying cars and autonomous vehicles any minute now helped discourage investment in better transit service and capital projects

«

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So, have you heard about monkeypox? • The Atlantic

Ed Yong:

»

[Boghuma Kabisen] Titanji [a physician at Emory University] notes that our knowledge of monkeypox is based on just 1,500 or so recorded cases, as of 2018. “I’ve seen a lot of people writing as if everything we know about monkeypox is definitive and finalized, but the reality is that it is still a rare zoonotic infection,” she said. For that reason, “I’m in Team Cautious,” she said. “We can’t use what happened with previous monkeypox outbreaks to make sweeping statements. If we’ve learned anything from COVID, it’s to have humility.”

For decades, a few scientists have voiced concerns that the monkeypox virus could have become better at infecting people—ironically because we eradicated its relative, smallpox, in the late 1970s. The smallpox vaccine incidentally protected against monkeypox. And when new generations were born into a world without either smallpox or smallpox-vaccination campaigns, they grew up vulnerable to monkeypox. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, this dwindling immunity meant that monkeypox infections increased 20-fold in the three decades after smallpox vanished, as Rimoin showed in 2010. That gives the virus more chances to evolve into a more transmissible pathogen in humans. To date, its R0—the average number of people who catch the disease from one infected person—has been less than 1, which means that outbreaks naturally peter out. But it could eventually evolve above that threshold, and cause more protracted epidemics, as [University of Washington professor, Carl] Bergstrom simulated in 2003. “We saw monkeypox as a ticking time bomb,” he told me.

This possibility casts a cloud of uncertainty over the current unusual outbreaks, which everyone I spoke with is concerned about. Are they the work of a new and more transmissible strain of monkeypox? Or are they simply the result of people traveling more after global COVID restrictions were lifted? Or could they be due to something else entirely? So far, the cases are more numerous than a normal monkeypox outbreak, but not so numerous as to suggest a radically different virus, Inglesby told me. But he also doesn’t have a clear explanation for the outbreak’s unusual patterns—nor does anyone else.

«

Cases now found in 14 countries (Israel and Switzerland the latest to join the dance), up to 80 cases confirmed and a further 50 being investigated, as of mid-Sunday.

One expert I heard being interviewed on the radio said it’s “very unlikely” to become a pandemic. Er.. great?
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Disinformation Governance Board ‘paused’ after just three weeks • The Washington Post

Taylor Lorenz:

»

Just hours after [Nina] Jankowicz tweeted about her new job, far-right influencer Jack Posobiec posted tweets accusing the Biden administration of creating a “Ministry of Truth.” Posobiec’s 1.7 million followers quickly sprung into action. By the end of the day, there were at least 53,235 posts on Twitter mentioning “Disinformation Governance Board,” many referencing Jankowicz by name, according to a report by Advance Democracy, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that conducts public-interest research. In the days following, that number skyrocketed.

The board was created to study best practices in combating the harmful effects of disinformation and to help DHS counter viral lies and propaganda that could threaten domestic security. Unlike the “Ministry of Truth” in George Orwell’s “1984” that became a derogatory comparison point, neither the board nor Jankowicz had any power or ability to declare what is true or false, or compel Internet providers, social media platforms or public schools to take action against certain types of speech. In fact, the board itself had no power or authority to make any operational decisions.

“The Board’s purpose has been grossly mischaracterized; it will not police speech,” the DHS spokesperson said. “Quite the opposite, its focus is to ensure that freedom of speech is protected.”
Posobiec’s early tweets shaped the narrative and Jankowicz was positioned as the primary target. Republican lawmakers echoed Posobiec’s framing and amplified it to their audiences. Missouri Attorney General Eric Schmitt, who is a US Senate hopeful, and Rep. Andrew S. Clyde (R-Ga.) both posted tweets similar to Posobiec’s. Former congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard (D-Hawaii) also posted a video repeating Posobiec’s statements.

The week following the announcement, approximately 70% of Fox News’s one-hour segments mentioned either Jankowicz or the board, with correspondents frequently deriding the board as a “Ministry of Truth,” according to Advance Democracy. The Fox News coverage was referenced in some of the most popular posts on Facebook and Twitter criticizing Jankowicz.

«

Absolutely astonishing how huge swathes of the US Democrats (especially the ones in government) are completely clueless about what to do about bad-faith right-wing attacks. It’s been going on since Bill Clinton was president, when Hillary Clinton was pilloried over her healthcare plans (by what she correctly called “a vast right-wing conspiracy”). Nobody seems to learn.
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Lagarde says crypto is ‘worth nothing’ and should be regulated • Bloomberg via Yahoo

Cagan Koc:

»

European Central Bank President Christine Lagarde said crypto-currencies are “based on nothing” and should be regulated to steer people away from speculating on them with their life savings.

Lagarde told Dutch television that she’s concerned about people “who have no understanding of the risks, who will lose it all and who will be terribly disappointed, which is why I believe that that should be regulated.”

…Lagarde said she’s skeptical of crypto’s value, contrasting it with the ECB’s digital euro – a project that may come to fruition in the next four years.

“My very humble assessment is that it is worth nothing, it is based on nothing, there is no underlying asset to act as an anchor of safety,” she said.

“The day when we have the central bank digital currency out, any digital euro, I will guarantee – so the central bank will behind it and I think it’s vastly different than many of those things,” Lagarde said.

…Lagarde said she doesn’t hold any crypto assets herself because “I want to practice what I preach.” But she follows them “very carefully” as one of her sons invested – against her advice. “He’s a free man,” she said.

«

Very much like to be a fly on the Largarde family wall for the surely upcoming conversation on this one.
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The noble gases neon and helium are suffering from Putin’s War • Bloomberg

Izabella Kaminska:

»

Neon, for example, is a key input for the semiconductor manufacturing process. The gas is a byproduct of steel production and is only commercially viable when it’s produced in significant quantities from very large steel plants such as Azovstal [in Mariupol, besieged by Russian forces]. Producers such as Ingas (linked to Mariupol) and Cryoin in Odessa can then pull the neon from the air and make it available for use. But with production at both companies now indefinitely suspended, analysts worry about the supply of neon and other gases, especially to Western manufacturers. 

A big problem is that the noble gas market remains dependent on a handful of specialists — firms such as Linde Plc, Air Liquide SA and Air Products and Chemicals Inc. — which prefer to engage in confidential long-term contracts. The lack of transparency has impeded the development of a spot market (where uncontracted supplies can be sold at current market prices) and discouraged natural price discovery. 

Since nobody can be sure of current pricing, it’s hard to assess just how much noble gas supply there is. What we do know is that, until the war in Ukraine broke out in 2014, as much as 90% of global neon supply was sourced from Ukraine. The bulk of this came from Mariupol, and most of it went to Western markets. 

Cliff Cain, of the Edelgas Group, an independent consultancy, told me that some production has since shifted to China, with Ukraine now probably representing 50% to 70% of global neon production. South Korea’s Posco steel-making company too has begun producing a small amount to cater to domestic demand. 

…But if Russia retains control of Mariupol and restarts the city’s damaged plants, 95% of the market could wind up in the hands of just two potentially “unfriendly” players, according to Cain. 

«

When Russia invaded Crime in 2014, neon prices quintupled. Earlier this year, prices from Chinese companies quadrupled. It’s used in lasers for chipmaking, and makes up about 18 parts per million of air – which is the only source. Ramping up production from other sources could take between 9 and 24 months. The chip shortage doesn’t look likely to go away soon.
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1804: the US’s desperate need for data privacy, writing about pedestrian deaths, ‘bionic reading’?, GOP v Google, and more


The minister responsible for media, Nadine Dorries, admitted illicitly sharing her Netflix password outside her house. Will she get cut off? CC-licensed photo by Stock Catalog on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 10 links for you. No, you’re on mute. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


We need to take back our privacy • The New York Times

The indispensable Zeynep Tufekci:

»

Surveillance made possible by minimally-regulated digital technologies could help law enforcement track down women who might seek abortions and medical providers who perform them in places where it would become criminalized. Women are urging one another to delete phone apps like period trackers that can indicate they are pregnant.

But frantic individual efforts to swat away digital intrusions will do too little. What’s needed, for all Americans, is a full legal and political reckoning with the reckless manner in which digital technology has been allowed to invade our lives. The collection, use and manipulation of electronic data must finally be regulated and severely limited. Only then can we comfortably enjoy all the good that can come from these technologies.

…Protections you think you have may not be as broad as you think. The confidentiality that federal health privacy law provides to conversations with a doctor doesn’t always apply to prescriptions. In 2020, Consumer Reports exposed that GoodRX, a popular drug discount and coupons service, was selling information on what medications people were searching or buying to Facebook, Google and other data marketing firms. GoodRX said it would stop, but there is no law against them, or any pharmacy, doing this.

That data becomes an even more powerful form of surveillance when it is combined with other data. A woman who regularly eats sushi and suddenly stops, or stops taking Pepto-Bismol, or starts taking vitamin B6 may be easily identified as someone following guidelines for pregnancy. If that woman doesn’t give birth she might find herself being questioned by the police, who may think she had an abortion. (Already, in some places, women who seek medical help after miscarriages have reported questioning to this effect.)

…our digital infrastructure has become the infrastructure of authoritarianism.

When I started saying this awhile back, many people would tell me that I was conflating the situation in China with that of Western countries where such surveillance is usually undertaken for commercial purposes and we have limits to what governments would want to do. I always thought: If you build it they will come for it. Criminalization of abortion may well be the first wide-scale test of this, but even if that doesn’t come to pass, we’re just biding our time.

«

In 1998 the US passed the DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act – to protect copyright holders, but it has never passed anything to protect the online privacy of individuals.
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Why the media keeps botching car crash coverage • Slate

David Zipper:

»

On the evening of Nov. 13, Roy Saravia Alvarez was walking home along the sidewalk of West Glebe Road in Alexandria, Virginia. At around 8 p.m., the driver of a truck jumped the sidewalk while turning left, striking Saravia Alvarez and pinning the 46-year-old underneath the vehicle. The driver, later identified by authorities as Fredy Ortiz-Dominguez, remained in the truck, spinning its wheels and rocking it back and forth for nearly five minutes. A passerby stopped and told Ortiz-Dominguez to get out of his vehicle, but he did so only when police arrived. By then, Saravia Alvarez was dead.

We know these details because a television journalist chose to investigate. “I saw the Alexandria police tweet about it,” says Julie Carey, the Northern Virginia bureau chief of local TV station NBC4. But “the police report was terrible,” she says. The report stated that “the incident involved a single vehicle striking a pedestrian,” and that while the pedestrian died, “the driver of the vehicle remained at the scene and sustained no injuries.”

Faced with that vague report, Carey went to the crash site. “I could see skid marks on the sidewalk. When we found out that Saravia Alvarez wasn’t crossing the street, that changed the whole complexion of the story.” She said the police report “gave no indication that the driver was at fault, that the victim was just a pedestrian walking on the sidewalk.” Carey approached a nearby vape store, which offered her security camera footage of the collision. “He played it for us on a big screen in the store,” she says.

NBC4’s story about the crash aired on Nov. 15, two days after it happened. In a follow-up segment, Carey noted that an autopsy indicated that Saravia Alvarez had survived the initial impact of the collision, and that the rocking of the truck likely killed him.

This reporting is notable because it was exceptional. To find out the basics of what happened, Carey had to examine skid marks and obtain security footage, because that information existed nowhere else.

«

This is a terrific piece about the framing of pedestrians being killed by car and truck drivers: how the implication tends to be the vehicle took on a life of its own, and/or the foolish pedestrian erred in being there.
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This viral ‘Bionic Reading’ tool for iPhone and Mac will blow your mind • iMore

Stephen Warwick:

»

new viral ‘Bionic Reading’ tool is taking the internet by storm because it could completely change the way you read and consume content.

Bionic Reading was created by Swiss developer Renato Casutt. The tool is described as “a new method facilitating the reading process by guiding the eyes through text with artificial fixation points.” In short, this tool makes different parts of words stand out, only highlighting the initial letters and letting your brain do the rest.

Still don’t get it? Let the picture below explain, reading first the left side, then the right. If the tool works for you, you should find the right-hand side much easier to read.


Source: Bionic Reading

Understandably, Bionic Reading is going absolutely rival on the web right now, a Tweet of the above picture has nearly more than 10,000 retweets and more than 56,000 likes in less than 24 hours.

The Bionic Reading API already exists online as a tool you can use to convert text, but it’s also already available on both the iPhone and the Mac. Two iPhone apps, Reeder 5 and lire, as well as the Mac app Fiery Feeds (also an RSS reader) have incorporated the technology on both Mac and iPhone, giving developers a look at how Bionic Reading could completely revolutionize the way we read content on devices like Apple’s best iPhones, the iPhone 12 and iPhone 13, as well as Macs and iPads.

«

One certainly feels like it’s easier to read the tweaked text than normal one. I’d love to see a proper examination of this.
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GOP-led legislation would force breakup of Google’s ad business • WSJ

Keach Hagey:

»

A bipartisan group of senators led by Utah Republican Mike Lee introduced legislation Thursday that would take aim at conflicts of interest in the advertising technology industry and force Google to break up its dominant online-ad business.

The bill, co-sponsored by Sens. Ted Cruz (R., Texas), Amy Klobuchar (D., Minn.) and Richard Blumenthal (D., Conn.), is among the most aggressive of the legislative proposals circulating in Congress that aim to rein in the power of Big Tech.

The Competition and Transparency in Digital Advertising Act would prohibit companies processing more than $20bn in digital ad transactions annually from participating in more than one part of the digital advertising ecosystem.

That would directly impact Google, a unit of Alphabet, which is the dominant player at every link in the chain that connects buyers and sellers of online advertising. Google operates tools that help companies sell and purchase ads, as well as the auction houses, or exchanges, where transactions happen in split seconds.

Under the legislation, Google wouldn’t be able to stay in all those businesses.

Similar legislation is expected to be introduced in the House as soon as Thursday, led by Republican Ken Buck of Colorado and Democrat Pramila Jayapal of Washington, congressional aides said.

“When you have Google simultaneously serving as a seller and a buyer and running an exchange, that gives them an unfair, undue advantage in the marketplace, one that doesn’t necessarily reflect the value they are providing,” said Mr. Lee in an interview. “When a company can wear all these hats simultaneously, it can engage in conduct that harms everyone.”

«

Google’s 2021 advertising network revenues was $31.7bn, so this looks very carefully targeted. Facebook would also be affected. No guarantee this will make any progress, but it would be a hell of a change to US antitrust law interpretation to say that because a company’s big in multiple parts of the same ecosystem, that it can’t be big any more.
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GOP senators’ private meeting with Google turns tense over email bias claims • POLITICO

Emily Birnbaum and Marianne Levine:

»

The Senate Republican Steering Committee, the policy arm of the Senate GOP, had invited Google’s chief legal officer, Kent Walker, to discuss a recent study that found the company has disproportionately filtered Republican lawmakers’ emails into hidden spam folders compared to emails from Democratic lawmakers. Walker said there is no bias in how Google deals with spam.

The group lunch grew unusually tense, according to three people familiar with the meeting, granted anonymity to discuss private matters. “The lunch was spirited,” said Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas), one of the more vocal attendees. “Google deflected, refused to provide any data, repeatedly refused to answer direct questions.”

The senators’ furor is part of the broader conservative crusade against the major tech companies, who they claim routinely stifle right-wing speech. The companies, including Facebook and Google, have denied these allegations, while researchers have found that there is no evidence that the social media platforms disproportionately take action against content from conservatives.

The meeting’s host was Republican Florida Sen. Rick Scott, the chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Several NRSC staffers and Republican political strategists were in attendance, an unusual dynamic given the traditional Capitol Hill separation between policymaking and politics.

One senator who attended the meeting, granted anonymity to describe the gathering, said it was “short of hostile, but confrontational.” GOP lawmakers have laid into Google at public hearings, but the senator said the private meeting was even more heated. “They want to come and explain and dispute and do a tutorial, just as I expected they would do,” the senator said. “But their problem was that we weren’t confined to five minutes or congeniality.”

The researchers behind the North Carolina State University study have denied that Google’s filtering is related to political discrimination, concluding it has more to do with factors like past user behaviour.

«

Everything becomes a point of leverage, whether or not it’s related to the truth.
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Justice Department pledges not to charge security researchers with hacking crimes • The Verge

Adi Robertson:

»

The US Department of Justice says it won’t subject “good-faith security research” to charges under anti-hacking laws, acknowledging long-standing concerns around the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). Prosecutors must also avoid charging people for simply violating a website’s terms of service — including minor rule-breaking like embellishing a dating profile — or using a work-related computer for personal tasks.

The new DOJ policy attempts to allay fears about the CFAA’s broad and ambiguous scope following a 2021 Supreme Court ruling that encouraged reading the law more narrowly. The ruling warned that government prosecutors’ earlier interpretation risked criminalizing a “breathtaking amount of commonplace computer activity,” laying out several hypothetical examples that the DOJ now promises it won’t prosecute. That change is paired with a safe harbor for researchers carrying out “good-faith testing, investigation, and/or correction of a security flaw or vulnerability.” The new rules take effect immediately, replacing old guidelines issued in 2014.

“The policy clarifies that hypothetical CFAA violations that have concerned some courts and commentators are not to be charged,” says a DOJ press release.

…The policy doesn’t settle all criticisms of the CFAA, like its potential for disproportionately long prison sentences. It doesn’t make the underlying law any less vague since it only affects how prosecutors interpret it. The DOJ also warns that the security research exception isn’t a “free pass” for probing networks. Someone who found a bug and extorted the system’s owner using that knowledge, for instance, could be charged for performing that research in bad faith. Even with these limits, though, the rulemaking is a pledge to avoid slapping punitive anti-hacking charges on anyone who uses a computer system in a way its owner doesn’t like.

«

Overdue. But welcome.
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More subprime borrowers are missing loan payments • WSJ

AnnaMaria Andriotis:

»

Consumers with low credit scores are falling behind on payments for car loans, personal loans and credit cards, a sign that the healthiest consumer lending environment on record in the U.S. is coming to an end.

The share of subprime credit cards and personal loans that are at least 60 days late is rising faster than normal, according to credit-reporting firm Equifax Inc. In March, those delinquencies rose month over month for the eighth time in a row, nearing their prepandemic levels.

Rising delinquencies were inevitable following their decline during the pandemic, many lenders and analysts said. Even so, the increase is getting attention from investors partly because the Federal Reserve, facing the highest inflation since the early 1980s, is embarking on what is expected to be the sharpest series of interest-rate rises in years. Higher loan delinquency figures can indicate stress on the part of consumers whose spending is a significant driver of economic activity.

Fears that rising rates will throw the economy into recession have fueled the worst start of the year for stocks in decades. A poor earnings season for major US retail chains has intensified those concerns this week, prompting large declines in major retail shares and sending the Dow Jones Industrial Average to its steepest drop of the year Wednesday.

Delinquencies on subprime car loans and leases hit an all-time high in February, based on Equifax’s tracking that goes back to 2007.

Many people, including those with less-than-perfect credit, paid off debts and built up savings during the pandemic, a surprising outcome considering that lenders at first thought borrowers would default en masse when Covid-19 hit. The government’s response, including stimulus payments and child tax credits, boosted many families’ financial health.

But now many of those benefits have run out. Subprime borrowers, who sometimes have lower incomes or less savings, are being hit hard. Inflation, running near its highest point in four decades, is also forcing many households to choose between paying for essentials and paying their monthly loans.

«

Subprime was the canary in the coalmine for the Great Recession, but this feels different. Possibly it’s the vehicle loans business – and hence the car business – that’s going to get hit.

And in the US they won’t even try a windfall tax on the oil companies, which looks inevitable in the UK some time in the next few weeks.
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A new Omicron variant, BA.2.12.1, has taken over in Massachusetts. Here’s what you need to know • The Boston Globe

Kay Lazar:

»

The virus that causes COVID-19 didn’t change much in the early days of the pandemic. Then the number of mutations started increasing, and scientists began using an alphabet soup of letters and numbers to distinguish them.

But nothing prepared them for the dizzying array of strains that the mighty Omicron variant has been spitting out.

As one of the newest Omicron variants, BA.2.12.1, overtakes its predecessors, here’s what you need to know.

Q: What is this BA.2.12.1 that is racing across the country?
First things first. The original Omicron variant, called B.1.1.529, emerged in South Africa last year and spread quickly around the world. By late January, another Omicron subvariant, BA.1.1, already was dominant in the United States.

Fast forward to this spring. The BA.2.12.1 subvariant from the fast-moving Omicron lineage was first detected in New York in March, along with its sibling, BA.2.1. These two subvariants are estimated to spread 23% to 27% faster than their predecessor, the BA.2 variant. Consider that in early March, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that BA.2 accounted for about 26% of all cases in the US, and BA.2.12.1 accounted for less than 1 percent. By May 7, BA.2 had roughly doubled its prevalence, to about 56% of all cases — but BA.2.12.1 had exploded and now accounts for 43% of the country’s COVID cases. (It’s about 40% of New England cases, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard estimates that it has taken over in Massachusetts, accounting for nearly 70% of cases.)

Q: Will BA.2.12.1 elbow out its sibling for top spot?
Scientists tracking Omicron say that’s already happening. Yet its extraordinary speed, fueling another rapid rise in cases, is puzzling researchers because its structure is not all that different from its predecessor’s. “It’s almost like having somebody who runs a 2:30 marathon changing their sneakers and all of a sudden running a two-hour marathon. It doesn’t make sense,” said Dr. Jacob Lemieux, an infectious disease specialist at Massachusetts General Hospital, who is also coleader of the viral variants program at the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.

«

The increasing infectivity of SARS-Cov-2 is stunning; it’s gone from very ordinary to extraordinary in the course of a couple of years. In the UK, BA.2 is a long way behind Omicron.
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Nadine Dorries admits to sharing her Netflix password with four other households • Mirror Online

Aletha Adu:

»

Nadine Dorries admitted to sharing her Netflix account password with four other households in a bizarre Commons hearing.

The Culture Secretary said four other people including her mum have access to her account in breach of its terms and conditions.

Netflix prohibits users from password sharing. But she only learned of this today, speaking to the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee.

She told MPs: “My mum has access to my account, the kids do. I have Netflix but there are four other people who can use my Netflix account in different parts of the country.” Laughing, she added: “Am I not supposed to do that?”

The DCMS permanent secretary Sarah Healey, sitting next to her in front of MPs added: “So many people watch it in my house I had to pay for the more expensive one.”

Ms Healey reportedly later told the Culture Secretary password sharing was not allowed on the service.

The Commons committee also quizzed the Culture Secretary on the future of Channel 4 after the Government announced plans to go ahead with its privatisation.

«

Netflix is blunt that “people who do not live in your household will need to use their own account to watch Netflix”. It can then demand that devices outside the household are “verified” (details on the same page). Healey is referring to the higher-tier account which allows five different profiles, but that’s not about location.

So yes, it looks like Dorries is indeed breaching the T&Cs for Netflix. Who’d like to be the brave person from customer relations making the phone call to tell her? Or are we in Elon Musk territory here?
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Defiant Chinese netizens skirt lockdown censorship using blockchain • Financial Times

Eleanor Olcott and Gloria Li:

»

In late April, Shanghai’s Tongji University students found rotting pork inside a meal box delivered several weeks into the city’s Omicron outbreak.

The maggot-infested meal struck a chord with the disgruntled Shanghai public weeks into an indefinite lockdown without access to basic food and medical supplies.

One student penned an angry response that quickly became a symbol of silent resistance, spreading across social media platforms. Censors deleted reposts of his outburst on the microblogging site Weibo, but the expletive-laden message was immortalised online after being turned into a small piece of digital art preserved on the blockchain.

The incident spawned a series of non-fungible tokens, a form of digital artwork, which have spread during the Shanghai lockdown as a way to preserve criticism of the city’s Omicron outbreak beyond the reach of censors.

China’s censors have been at the forefront of the information battle during the country’s worst coronavirus outbreak in two years. They have systematically erased critical articles and posts on mainstream social media sites about the heavy burden of the strict lockdown measures.

But the growing popularity of blockchain technology has presented a fresh challenge to the country’s censorship regime. Once data is sent to a blockchain network, it cannot be deleted or altered by higher authorities.

…“Censors cannot delete information from the blockchain,” said Barney Tan, head of the school of information systems and technology management at UNSW Sydney.

«

A real use for the blockchain to get around censorsh—

»

But Tan noted that even though censors cannot scrub out information from the blockchain, “they can still block access to it” by preventing people from sharing links on social media.

«

Oh well. But: it’s better than nothing, and it might at least exist outside the censorship space.

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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1803: Google shuts Russian offices, Tesla’s ESG failure, Musk’s Buffalo silence, the wheat forecast, dictionary fun, and more


If you ask a software engineer to build a billing system, you’ll discover why utilities bills are so perplexing and inflexible. CC-licensed photo by Uswitch.com Images on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. Every three months, right? I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Google’s Russian subsidiary to file for bankruptcy after bank account seized • Reuters

»

Google’s Russian subsidiary plans to file for bankruptcy after authorities seized its bank account, making it impossible to pay staff and vendors, but free services including search and YouTube will keep operating, a Google spokesperson said on Wednesday.

The Alphabet unit has been under pressure in Russia for months for failing to delete content Moscow deems illegal and for restricting access to some Russian media on YouTube, but the Kremlin has so far stopped short of blocking access to the company’s services.

“The Russian authorities seizure of Google Russia’s bank account has made it untenable for our Russia office to function, including employing and paying Russia-based employees, paying suppliers and vendors, and meeting other financial obligations,” a Google spokesperson said. “Google Russia has published a notice of its intention to file for bankruptcy.”

A TV channel owned by a sanctioned Russian businessman said in April that bailiffs had seized 1 billion roubles ($15m) from Google over its failure to restore access to its YouTube account, but this is the first time the US tech giant has said its bank account as whole has been seized.

«

Even China just ticked some boxes to force Google out back in 2010. But will Russia block access? It’s the logical next step.
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Why Tesla was kicked out of the S&P 500’s ESG index • CNBC

Lora Kolodny:

»

Changes to the index took effect on May 2, and a spokesperson for the index explained why they were made in a blog post published Wednesday.

It said that Tesla’s “lack of a low-carbon strategy” and “codes of business conduct,” along with racism and poor working conditions reported at Tesla’s factory in Fremont, California, affected the score. Tesla’s handling of an investigation by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration also weighed on its score.

While Tesla’s stated mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy, in February this year it settled with the Environmental Protection Agency after years of Clean Air Act violations and neglecting to track its own emissions. Tesla ranked 22nd on last year’s Toxic 100 Air Polluters Index, compiled annually by U-Mass Amherst Political Economy Research Institute — worse than Exxon Mobil, which came in 26th. (The index uses data from 2019, the most recently available.)

In Tesla’s first-quarter filing the company also disclosed it is being investigated for its handling of waste in the state of California, and that it had to pay a fine in Germany for failures to meet “take back” obligations in the country for spent batteries.

«

Certainly it feels pretty weird that Exxon – as in, the oil company – should be on the list when Tesla is not. Elon Musk was, predictably, annoyed about this and called ESG [environment, social, governance) “a scam” that has “been weaponised by phony social justice warriors”. Sure, a chunk of it is a scam (observe: Exxon). But Tesla really isn’t the shiny clean company Musk claims – observe its trading in bitcoin, which hardly helps reduce energy use.
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Elon Musk’s silence on how he’d moderate the Buffalo shooting livestream is deafening • The Verge

Corin Faife:

»

Under Elon Musk’s view of content moderation, any restriction on speech beyond what the law proscribes is censorship. And by that standard, the video of the attack in Buffalo — however graphic — should have remained on the platform since videos of graphic violence are not illegal speech. In practice, platforms were criticized for being too slow to remove them, and Musk found no need to weigh in on the debate.

The details of the Buffalo, New York shooting are widely known and still painful to report. Ten people were killed on a Saturday afternoon in a supermarket that was a mainstay for residents of Buffalo’s predominantly Black East Side. A gunman livestreamed the murderous violence on Twitch and planned to inflict yet more before being stopped by police.

The Buffalo gunman was, beyond doubt, radicalized online. He cited the Christchurch mass shooter as an inspiration, copying large parts of the New Zealand terrorist’s manifesto into one of his own. He was motivated by the “great replacement” theory, which holds that white people are being intentionally dispossessed from their positions of power through immigration and interracial marriage. He wrote that he had learned of the theory through 4chan, the online message board that spawned QAnon and has been linked to many other acts of white supremacist terrorism.

…If [Musk] had stopped tweeting entirely over the weekend, it would be fair to suggest that he was occupied elsewhere.

In reality, within hours of the shooting, Musk had posted a number of tweets, some of them even touching on content moderation. Approximately five hours after the shooting took place, he explained to users how they could access the chronological feed to avoid being “manipulated by the algorithm.” Later on in the evening, he found time to share a newsletter from Matt Taibbi on corporate regulation in California, some images of a recent Space X launch, and a royal portrait of King Louis XIV of France. The next day, he revisited the thread on chronological ordering with a tweet about the importance of open-source code. On Monday, he found enough time to troll Twitter CEO Parag Agrawal in a conversation about spam. But watchers looking for any comment on Buffalo found nothing.

«

Good to see The Verge calling Musk out on this. It’s the sort of thing that people think is easy to sort. It isn’t.
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Grain: world markets and trade forecasts • US Department of Agriculture

»

Global wheat consumption is projected at 788 million tons, down 3 million from last year as reductions in Feed and Residual use are only partially offset by higher Food, Seed and Industrial (FSI) use. High global food inflation will impact consumers’ ability to purchase wheat and wheat products in developing markets and may direct consumers to alternative food grains. However, the global economic recovery following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions in most countries, as well as emerging market consumers’ general shift toward more wheat-based diets with rising incomes and increased urbanization, continue to push FSI consumption higher. FSI is forecast at a record in 2022/23, with growth seen across nearly all regions.

«

That consumption figure is projected higher than production, which is put at 775m tonnes, down 4m on last year; and of course the big cut in production is Ukraine. Wheat had some boom production years in 2016, 2017 and 2019, but for four of the past seven years (including this one) consumption has exceeded production.

And just take a look at wheat futures prices.
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The Apple Car could feature VR technology and no windows • VRScout

Kyle Melnick:

»

On May 3rd, 2022, Apple filed a patent with the United States Patent & Trademark Office for an in-car VR entertainment system that utilizes the motion of the vehicle to further immerse passengers in their in-headset experiences. VR content is synchronized with the movement and acceleration of the autonomous vehicle as it travels to the desired location, offering a unique location-based experience that changes based on your commute.

In addition to entertainment, the patent details how the technology referenced could be used to reduce motion sickness. Instead of conventional windows, passengers would view the outside world by using their VR headset to access cameras mounted on the outside of the vehicle. The technology could also be used to watch videos and read books in a stabilized environment as well as conduct virtual meetings while on the road.

«

There’s no way on this earth that any Apple Car would have no windows. Apart from anything, if you’re wearing a VR headset, you don’t know if there are windows or not. And the patent doesn’t imply “no windows”. But well done to VR Scout for a headline that puts such a ludicrous spin on things that linking to it was irresistible.
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Four surefire ways to eliminate spam from Google Messages • Android Police

Karandeep Singh:

»

Armed with RCS, Google Messages is the current face of the company’s longstanding quest for a worthy messaging app. While the multipurpose SMS app now has the features to rival the likes of WhatsApp, it still fails in one key area—and that area is spam. That’s especially true when the sources are verified business accounts that have been hassling scores of users lately with spammy in-chat advertisements within Google Messages.

While Google and ads usually go hand in hand, the search giant has little part to play in this case. Several pushy financial services brands have been exploiting their verified business privileges to spam users (or anyone whose number they have) with rich media ads in Google Messages over past year. The trend initially blew up with Kotak Mahindra Bank, Bajaj Finserv, Buddy Loan, and PolicyBazaar have turned out to be the biggest offenders.

Moreover, this isn’t limited to Pixel or Android One users, as the Messages app now comes as the default SMS app on most smartphones. Some Samsung phone owners have also seen these ads in their preinstalled SMS app, leading us to believe that the RCS protocol is being used to relay these ad banners.

So, how do we get rid of these spammy ads in Google Messages?

«

The answer turns out to be: turn off the RCS capability. (RCS, as a reminder, is a WhatsApp-like data-borne method of messaging. Of course when data is effectively free, it’s going to be abused. Maybe Apple’s unwillingness to embrace it makes sense. Not that SMS (or indeed iMessage) is totally free of spam, but abuse of low-cost products that reach a lot of people is a certainty.
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Plastic-eating enzyme could eliminate billions of tons of landfill waste • UT News

»

An enzyme variant created by engineers and scientists at The University of Texas at Austin can break down environment-throttling plastics that typically take centuries to degrade in just a matter of hours to days.

This discovery, published in Nature, could help solve one of the world’s most pressing environmental problems: what to do with the billions of tons of plastic waste piling up in landfills and polluting our natural lands and water. The enzyme has the potential to supercharge recycling on a large scale that would allow major industries to reduce their environmental impact by recovering and reusing plastics at the molecular level.

“The possibilities are endless across industries to leverage this leading-edge recycling process,” said Hal Alper, professor in the McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at UT Austin. “Beyond the obvious waste management industry, this also provides corporations from every sector the opportunity to take a lead in recycling their products. Through these more sustainable enzyme approaches, we can begin to envision a true circular plastics economy.”

The project focuses on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a significant polymer found in most consumer packaging, including cookie containers, soda bottles, fruit and salad packaging, and certain fibers and textiles. It makes up 12% of all global waste.

The enzyme was able to complete a “circular process” of breaking down the plastic into smaller parts (depolymerization) and then chemically putting it back together (repolymerization). In some cases, these plastics can be fully broken down to monomers in as little as 24 hours.

«

Looking back through collected links (nearly 19,000 presently), a version of this tech seems to come up every few years. (Here’s the previous one, in 2019, and the one before that in 2018.) Still not seeing it in use.
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😵‍💫 Why billing systems are a nightmare for engineers • Lago blog

Anh-To:

»

When implementing a billing system, dealing with dates is often the number 1 complexity. Somehow, all your subscriptions and charges deal with a number of days. Whether you make your customers pay weekly, monthly or yearly, you need to roll things over a period of time called the billing period.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of difficulties for engineers:
1. How to deal with leap years?
2. Do your subscriptions start at the beginning of the month or at the creation date of the customer?
3. How many days/months of trial do you offer?
4. Who decided February only holds 28 days? 🤔
5. Wait, bullet 1 is also important for February… 🤯
6. How to calculate a usage-based charge (price per seconds, hours, days…)?
7. Do I resume the consumption or do I stack it month over month? Year over year?
8. Do I apply a pro-rata based on the number of days consumed by my customer?

Although every decision is reversible, billing cycle questions are often the most important source of customer support tickets, and iterating on them is a highly complex and sensitive engineering project.

«

This is just the very tip of the iceberg. So you look at the big billing systems run particularly by utilities (and most especially by the newest utilities, ie broadband and mobile companies) and realise that there are all sorts of implicit problems that they’re struggling with.
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Time Traveler: search words by first known use date • Merriam-Webster Dictionary

»

When was a word first used in print? You may be surprised! Enter a date below to see the words first recorded on that year.

In explanation: It is essential to keep a few factors in mind when assessing the First Known Use Date:
• The date may not represent the very oldest sense of the word. Many obsolete, archaic, and uncommon senses have been excluded from this dictionary, and such senses have not been taken into consideration in determining the date.
• The date most often does not mark the very first time that the word was used in English. Many words were in spoken use for decades or even longer before they passed into the written language. The date is for the earliest written or printed use that the editors have been able to discover.
• The date is subject to change. Many of the dates provided will undoubtedly be updated as evidence of still earlier use emerges.

The First Known Use Date will appear in one of three styles:
• For the Old English period (700-1099), “before 12th century”
• For the Middle English period (1100-1499), by century (e.g., “14th century”)
• For the Modern English period (1500-present), by year (for example, “1942”)

«

You can pick individual years all the way back to 1500. Could I suggest you try 1884? Might need to scroll a little.
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1802: Apple headset history leaks, ‘cryware’ targets crypto, Musk and the irrelevant spambots, Napster sold, and more


Playing video games has a positive effect on children’s intelligence, according to a new study. Unexpected result, eh? CC-licensed photo by Sherif Salama on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 10 links for you. Best not viewed through a headset. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Apple’s mixed reality headset project challenges explained • 9to5Mac

Michael Potuck, filleting The Information’s report on this:

»

When the headset team founder and leader Mike Rockwell was working on getting buy-in from Apple’s various teams to help with the development, his team was shut down on the idea of making it a VR headset. Ive’s team also pushed back on “practical uses” and doubted consumers would want to wear headsets for any considerable amount of time.

»

Rockwell, Meier and Rothkopf soon encountered pushback from Ive’s team. The three men had initially wanted to build a VR headset, but Ive’s group had concerns about the technology, said three people who worked on the project. They believed VR alienated users from other people by cutting them off from the outside world, made users look unfashionable and lacked practical uses. Apple’s industrial designers were unconvinced that consumers would be willing to wear headsets for long periods of time, two of the people said.

«

That ended up birthing the idea of a mixed reality headset:

»

The men came up with a solution to address the concerns of Ive’s team. For example, they proposed adding cameras to the front of the headset so that people wearing the device could see their surroundings, said the three people. But the feature that ultimately sold the industrial designers on the project was a concept for an outward-facing screen on the headset. The screen could display video images of the eyes and facial expressions of the person wearing the headset to other people in the room.

These features addressed the industrial design group’s worries about VR-induced alienation—they allowed other people in a room to interact and collaborate with a person wearing a headset in a way not possible with other VR gear. For years, the existence of such a display, internally code-named T429, was known only to a small circle of people even within Rockwell’s group.

«

The Information’s report hints that a follow-up piece will cover a “pivotal moment for the Apple headset” that occurred in 2019. That’s likely when Jony Ive “balked” at the idea of selling a headset that required a base station device to operate. That’s when the team pivoted to working on a less powerful, but more independent AR/VR device.

The latest expectation is that Apple could announce its mixed reality headset in 2023. As far as price, we’ve heard reports that it could sell from above $2,000 to $3,000.

«

I talked about life in the metaverse for an upcoming episode of The Bunker podcast. I feel that if they get it right, it’ll get takeup in business. Not sure how much more widely, though.
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In hot pursuit of ‘cryware’: Defending hot wallets from attacks • Microsoft Security Blog

“Microsoft 365 Defender Research Team”:

»

The steep rise in cryptocurrency market capitalization, not surprisingly, mirrors a marked increase in threats and attacks that target or leverage cryptocurrencies. But Microsoft researchers are observing an even more interesting trend: the evolution of related malware and their techniques, and the emergence of a threat type we’re referring to as “cryware”.

Cryware are information stealers that collect and exfiltrate data directly from non-custodial cryptocurrency wallets, also known as hot wallets. Because hot wallets, unlike custodial wallets, are stored locally on a device and provide easier access to cryptographic keys needed to perform transactions, more and more threats are targeting them.

Cryware signifies a shift in the use of cryptocurrencies in attacks: no longer as a means to an end but the end itself. Before cryware, the role of cryptocurrencies in an attack or the attack stage where they figured varied depending on the attacker’s overall intent. For example, some ransomware campaigns prefer cryptocurrency as a ransom payment. However, that requires the target user to manually do the transfer. Meanwhile, cryptojackers—one of the prevalent cryptocurrency-related malware—do try to mine cryptocurrencies on their own, but such a technique is heavily dependent on the target device’s resources and capabilities.

With cryware, attackers who gain access to hot wallet data can use it to quickly transfer the target’s cryptocurrencies to their own wallets. Unfortunately for the users, such theft is irreversible: blockchain transactions are final even if they were made without a user’s consent or knowledge.

«

They go into a lot of detail here, but it’s the “cryware” epithet that’s novel.
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Warning: another stablecoin loses peg – DEI team working to restore the peg • Finbold

Dino Kurbegovic:

»

Deus Finance’s stablecoin Dei (DEI) is the latest stablecoin to lose its 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar. The coin is currently trading at $0.64, as this drop follows several algorithmic stablecoins losing their peg last week, the most notable of which was the algorithmic stablecoin TerraUSD (UST). 

Deus Finance uses DEUS and DEI tokens for their DeFi protocol, where minting 1 DEI requires $1 of collateral. When redeeming, for instance, one DEI, users would get 80% of the value in USDC and 20% in DEUS if USDC was used as collateral for the creation of DEI in the first place. 

This is important because the collateral ratio fell to 43%; according to data from Deus Finance, low collateral meant difficult redemption of DEI tokens since there is not enough capital behind the stablecoin.   

Traders are taking advantage of this arbitrage mismatch, buying up DEI coins and exchanging them for $1 worth of collateral, making matters worse. Deus Finance reacted by halting the redemption process in order to try and stabilize the coin.  

«

When I checked about seven hours ago, that wasn’t going too well: down to $0.57. USDC never seems to have been very well capitalised. Still, to lose one peg might look like accident, to lose two…
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Intel can’t even grow profits during a global chip shortage; where did it all go wrong? • The Conversation

Howard Yu is professor of management and innovation at the International Institute for Management Development:

»

TSMC doesn’t have to shoulder the risks of launching a new product. It just needs to excel in manufacturing, because if a Qualcomm product fails, AMD’s may take off. TSMC can switch capacity from one client to another. Risk is mitigated when demand is pooled.

For chip designers, outsourcing to TSMC has gradually meant they can afford to be fast-moving and bold in product design. If a new chip doesn’t sell, they can pull the plug without having to worry about the factory: that’s TSMC’s problem.

That’s how Nvidia has evolved beyond deploying graphic processors only in the gaming sector; it’s now leading in designing chipsets for AI applications. And AMD, an underdog close to bankruptcy in 2014, now makes some of the most powerful processors.

Intel, meanwhile, still needs to ensure that every product wins with enough volume to feed its network of factories, each costing billions of dollars. This has made the company more and more conservative. And having stuck to supplying chips to PCs, servers and data centres, it is struggling to innovate. Tellingly, the company’s gross margin – total revenue minus the cost of production – has been sliding for nearly a decade. The biggest danger for a technology company is that it’s not developing leading-edge products fast enough, backsliding into selling commodities.

«

Intel’s was the utterly winning formula while desktop/laptop was the only game in town. But as soon as that diversified, the formula became a deadweight. Intel’s now-CEO argued strongly against RISC as a design architecture, insisting that CISC was the better option. That was absolutely correct as long as power consumption wasn’t a relevant metric. Now, though, it is.
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The impact of digital media on children’s intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background • Scientific Reports

Bruno Sauce et al (from Holland, Germany and Sweden):

»

Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We believe that studies with genetic data could clarify causal claims and correct for the typically unaccounted role of genetic predispositions. Here, we estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for the confounding effects of genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic status.

We analyzed 9,855 children from the USA who were part of the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9–10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching (r = − 0.12) and socializing (r = − 0.10) were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming did not correlate. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.17), but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence (standardized β =  + 0.12), contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Although, in a posthoc analysis, this was not significant if parental education (instead of SES) was controlled for.

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“Gaming positively impacted intelligence”. Bet you didn’t expect that one.
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Tesla hacker proves a way of unlocking doors, starting engine • Bloomberg

Margi Murphy:

»

Tesla customers might love the carmakers’ nifty keyless entry system, but one cybersecurity researcher has demonstrated how the same technology could allow thieves to drive off with certain models of the electric vehicles.

A hack effective on the Tesla Model 3 and Y cars would allow a thief to unlock a vehicle, start it and speed away, according to Sultan Qasim Khan, principal security consultant at the Manchester, UK-based security firm NCC Group. By redirecting communications between a car owner’s mobile phone, or key fob, and the car, outsiders can fool the entry system into thinking the owner is located physically near the vehicle. 

The hack, Khan said, isn’t specific to Tesla, though he demonstrated the technique to Bloomberg News on one of its car models. Rather, it’s the result of his tinkering with Tesla’s keyless entry system, which relies on what’s known as a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol. 

There’s no evidence that thieves have used the hack to improperly access Tesla vehicles. The carmaker didn’t respond to a request for comment. NCC provided details of its findings to its clients in a note on Sunday, an official there said.

Khan said he had disclosed the potential for attack to Tesla and that company officials didn’t deem the issue a significant risk. To fix it, the carmaker would need to alter its hardware and change its keyless entry system, Khan said. The revelation comes after another security researcher, David Colombo, revealed a way of hijacking some functions on Tesla vehicles, such as opening and closing doors and controlling music volume.

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It’s a little difficult to evaluate how much of a risk this is. “Redirecting communication” sounds like they’re trying to unlock the car and the thief intercepts that? Not sure how dangerous that would really be.
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Elon Musk does not care about spam bots • Bloomberg

Matt Levine, whose newsletter is an excellent choice of reading:

»

I think it is important to be clear here that Musk is lying. The spam bots are not why he is backing away from the deal, as you can tell from the fact that the spam bots are why he did the deal. He has produced no evidence at all that Twitter’s estimates are wrong, and certainly not that they are materially wrong or made in bad faith. (Musk can only get out of the deal if Twitter’s filings are wrong in a way that would cause a “material adverse effect” on Twitter, which is vanishingly unlikely.) His own supposed methodology for counting spam bots is laughable. Yesterday Twitter’s chief executive officer, Parag Agrawal, tweeted a thread explaining in general terms how Twitter estimates that fake accounts represent fewer than 5% of its count of active users, and how this analysis can’t be easily replicated by outsiders (because they don’t know which accounts are real, and also because they don’t know which accounts Twitter counts as daily active users). It seems clear that Agrawal’s thoughtful answer is basically correct. 1  Musk responded with a poop emoji.

More important, nothing has changed about the bot problem since Musk signed the merger agreement. Twitter has published the same qualified estimate — that fewer than 5% of monetizable accounts are fake — for the last eight years. Musk knew those estimates, and declined to do any nonpublic due diligence before signing the merger agreement. He knew about the spam bot problem before signing the merger agreement, as we know because he talked about it constantly, including while announcing the merger agreement. If he didn’t want to buy Twitter because there are spam bots, he should not have signed a contract to buy Twitter. No new information has come to light about spam bots in the last three weeks. 

What has happened in the last three weeks? Well, the prices of tech stocks have gone down, making the $54.20 price that Musk agreed to look a bit rich.

«

Levine is, it should be said, a fan of italics. I now put the chances of this deal happening at around 10%. That is, if someone offers you £10 for a £1 bet that it happens, take it. But not for £9.

Also: remember a fortnight ago, when everyone was sure the deal was all done bar a couple of dotted i’s?
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About that passenger who landed a plane • Breaking the News

James Fallows, an experienced pilot, on some of the things that the guy who landed the plane when the pilot passed out (here’s the FAA account):

»

What’s hard about landing a plane includes the following elements, which are distinct from the other parts of “learning to fly”—weather, radio work, regulations, avionics, mechanical and electrical systems, etc.

• You’re intentionally pointing the plane toward the ground. This can be disconcerting
• You have to maintain the “sight picture.” You can judge whether you’re on the right vertical descent path, by how the approach end of the runway looks as you head down. When the winds are smooth, this can be like riding an escalator down toward the runway. It becomes second nature, just like judging the traffic flow when you’re changing lanes on a busy freeway. But it’s not first nature
• You have to manage step-downs in altitude and speed. Planes typically cruise at speeds that are many multiples of their proper touch-down speed for landing. They need to reduce the speed in predictable increments —meanwhile while descending, which (unless offset) increases the airplane’s speed
• Managing the speed, and altitude, and alignment through these processes again becomes as natural as guiding a bike in a turn. But not the first time—or, for most people, the 10th, or the 50th
• You have to manage “pitch and power,” which I’m not going to get into. Nor the use of “flaps.” Again, everyone learns to do this by muscle memory, but no one starts that way
• You have to manage winds. When there’s a crosswind, which seems to be most of the time, you “crab” into the wind, pointing the plane’s nose upwind so that its course remains aligned with the runway. And then there is “wind shear,” and allowing for “gust factor
• You have to manage the “flare.” The difference between what feels like a “rough” and “smooth” landing often comes down to a difference of a few inches, and a few knots, in how the plane goes through the last little bit of descent.

«

As Fallows points out, we haven’t had the tapes of the conversation between air traffic control and the (presumed completely amateur) passenger. So we don’t know what the conversation was. It’s going to be absolutely fascinating to know how they literally talked him down. (Via John Naughton.)
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MetaFilter’s rule-laden mini-utopia • New_ Public

“New_ Public” (a “community of thinkers, designers and technologists building the digital public spaces of the future”):

»

Today, there’s an expectation that if you want to join a social media network, the experience should be “frictionless” — you should be able to start as easily and seamlessly as possible. The quicker a platform can get you comfortable and interested (and typically, at least casually addicted), the better. MetaFilter, which comes from an era of image-less forums, where you can’t even reply to a post in-line, takes a different approach. Anyone can read the site, but to post you must pay $5 and wait one week. As they explain on their new user page, these rules, and other waiting periods, are partly to combat spam and bots. But primarily, they want users to understand what MetaFilter is, how it works, and what’s expected of users before they jump in completely.

It may take a little time and effort to get into MetaFilter, but every decision about how the site works is instantly available for any visitor to read through the MetaTalk subpage. This goes far beyond basic policies and terms of service. For example, the site is currently moving to a new moderation model, which is being chronicled by the users. 

The owner since 2017 has been Josh Millard, who goes by cortex on MetaFilter. Millard is now ceding control of the site to a transition team of longtime users who will decide how to proceed. In a recent candid post, Millard opened up about what it takes to run the site. “I’ve been especially aware of both the toll the job has been taking on me and the degree to which my burnout and mental health challenges have been preventing me from being as effective a manager, moderator, and business administrator as I want MetaFilter to have,” he wrote.

Here, the gulf between MetaFilter and the largest social platforms gets even wider. If Elon Musk’s stated goal of a Twitter with no restrictions on speech is one end of the spectrum, then MetaFilter might be the other end. It’s important to know that the amount of new content each day is extremely low (maybe 10 posts) and the site has a deep catalog of posts that mods do not want to be repeated. The FAQ could not be more clear: “MetaFilter is a moderated site and not all posts pass muster.”

«

But, of course, that takes a lot of work. Metafilter came close to death a few years ago when Google downranked it.
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Napster gets bought again, this time with a web3 pivot in the works • Music Ally

Stuart Dredge:

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How many roads must a man walk down before you call him a man, wondered Bob Dylan in 1963. How many owners must a Napster change hands between before you call it a revolutionary blockchain and web3 platform, wonders Music Ally in 2022. Whatever the number, you can add one to it this morning.

Yes, Napster has been acquired again, this time by two companies from the web3 sector: Hivemind and Algorand. “Dear friends, we are excited to share that we’ve taken Napster Group private, and to bring the iconic music brand to web3,” wrote Hivemind founder Matt Zhang on LinkedIn.

“Volatile market and uncertain times often bring exciting opportunities. At Hivemind, we believe in developing thesis and building enduring value. Music x Web3 is one of the most exciting spaces we’ve come across, and we are thrilled to work with Emmy Lovell and many talents to unlock value for the entire ecosystem and revolutionize how artists and fans enjoy music.”

Lovell has been named interim CEO of Napster, with the former WMG exec stepping up from her previous role as chief strategy officer, having joined the company in April 2021 shortly after its last acquisition by music VR company MelodyVR.

«

I honestly thought Napster was still going in its second incarnation, as a music service. Seems not. It’s changed hands more times than Delicious (which finally got bought by Pinboard, to stop other people buying it and passing it round).
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1801: Facebook’s fear of the right wing, Christchurch’s missed chance, speeding’s real death toll, war by ratio, and more


The Alqueva reservoir is western Europe’s largest artificial lake, and the site of Europe’s largest floating solar farm: 7.5GWh annual generation. CC-licensed photo by Paulo Valdivieso on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. All different. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Facebook killed News Feed fix for fear of conservative backlash • Gizmodo

Dell Cameron, Shoshana Wodinsky and Mack DeGeurin:

»

Today, Gizmodo is publishing our third batch of the Facebook Papers—documents that, among other things, shine a light on the company’s reluctance to take action against known sources of misinformation. Employees whose work appears in the papers repeatedly attribute decisions like the shelved News Feed update to fears that the company would be portrayed as favoring certain publications that, in some cases, its own users judged more informative. In particular, accusations of liberal bias by Republican leaders weighed heavily in debates over whether to improve News Feed or correct flaws in the ways Facebook prioritized journalism and other political content. Accusations of a liberal slant controlling the company are described in two papers as playing a crucial role in decisions reached during employee-led efforts to minimize the frequency of propaganda and misinformation in people’s feeds.

An internal post dated August 2019 briefly describes the decision by Facebook to kill a News Feed update purportedly designed to prioritize “high quality” news. In this case, Facebook obtained the underlying data responsible for gauging the trustworthiness of news sources by polling users. The company came to the decision not to reduce the flow of “low quality” news to stave off charges from “some quarters” about “perceived anti-conservative bias,” according to the post.

Asked about the discrepancy between the company’s prior claims and the once-confidential testimony of its own employees, a Facebook spokesperson declined to comment.

In the same 2019 document, Facebook employees estimated that the company had only taken action against “approximately 2% of the hate speech on the platform,” while concluding that misinformation, when noticed at all, often goes unidentified “until after it has gotten a lot of distribution.” The most “impactful abusive accounts,” it says, continue to persistently evade moderation. While employees generally have “considerable leeway” when it comes to making decisions that affect “a wide range of content,” the author writes, “policy concerns become significantly higher” when politics enter the frame.

The documents take on new relevance in the political climate of 2022. Attempts by social media companies to minimize the spread of election-related hoaxes and false news have spurred Republican leaders in several states to pursue new laws around content moderation.

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Buffalo might never have happened if online hate had been tackled after Christchurch • The Guardian

Imran Ahmed is chief executive of the Center for Countering Digital Hate:

»

In a joint statement in 2019, Meta, Twitter and Google committed to uphold the Christchurch Call to eliminate terrorist and violent extremist content online. They stated that they would be “resolute in [their] commitment to ensure [they] are doing all [they] can to fight the hatred and extremism that lead to terrorist violence”.

The failure of social media companies to act sufficiently on known racist content connected with terrorism is a violation of their own terms and conditions, the pledges made to an international community when the cameras were rolling, and the dignity that the victims of Buffalo were entitled to have – the right to life.

Social media and online spaces are often where people meet, seek information and become radicalised through a rabbit-hole of lies, hate and misinformation. Those with fringe beliefs will be exposed to increasingly more radical content as a result of recommendation algorithms. The failure of social media giants to effectively tackle online hate and misinformation has real-world impacts. Words can kill.

Perhaps the only thing that explains why – despite so many pledges, so many platitudes and commitments to voluntary frameworks – the social media platforms have failed to act is because of the memo that Andrew Bosworth, now chief technical officer of Meta, wrote to his fellow employees on their internal messaging board, called the Ugly Truth. In it he said: “So we connect more people. That can be bad if they make it negative. Maybe it costs a life by exposing someone to bullies. Maybe someone dies in a terrorist attack co-ordinated on our tools. And still we connect people.”

It is, quite simply, a bald statement of personal indifference to the grief of people, families and our nations.

«

The Bosworth Memo (it deserves its own capital letters) dates back to June 2016, and always comes across as a distillation – it’s only 420 words – of the sociopathic mentality that can infect people who get disintermediated from those they affect.
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Speeding causes three times as many road deaths as previously thought • The Sunday Times

Nicholas Hellen:

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Under a more accurate reporting system to be adopted by the National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC), speed will be noted as a contributing cause of half of Britain’s 1,500 annual road deaths. It is currently noted as the cause of just 375.

At present, official figures record that the biggest cause of deaths on the road is a driver or rider failing to look properly. Loss of control is second, with exceeding the speed limit and driver carelessness joint third.

But the figures, known as STATS19, are based on reports from the scene of the collision, and are not updated even if an investigation finds other factors were involved. Now forces will be asked to record the results of their final assessment of the causes, typically after a forensic review has been conducted.

A Metropolitan Police review has found that speeding was cited as a factor in 17.5% of fatal crashes in 2019 based on the initial investigation, but 49.2% based on the final results. The figure for 2020 was revised up from 19.1% to 46.8%. This included motorists who broke the speed limit and those who drove too fast for the conditions.

Even greater anomalies have been discovered in the Greater Manchester police area, where the official figures for road deaths in the three years from 2016 to 2018 show that motorists were breaking the speed limit in 64% of cases rather than 15%.

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That’s quite a big difference. “Too fast for the conditions” isn’t going to be affected by a speed limiter, but the Manchester numbers suggest they could make a difference. Couldn’t they? (Thanks Fabian for the link.)

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SparkToro & Followerwonk joint Twitter analysis: 19.42% of active accounts are fake or spam • SparkToro

Rand Fishkin:

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From May 13-15, 2022, SparkToro and Followerwonk conducted a rigorous, joint analysis of 44,058 public Twitter accounts active in the last 90 days. These accounts were randomly selected, by machine, from a set of 130+ million public, active profiles. Our analysis found that 19.42%, nearly four times Twitter’s Q4 2021 estimate, fit a conservative definition of fake or spam accounts (i.e. our analysis likely undercounts). Details and methodology are provided in the full report below.

For the past three years, SparkToro has operated a free tool for Twitter profiles called Fake Followers. Over the last month, numerous media outlets and other curious parties have used the tool to analyze would-be-Twitter-buyer, Elon Musk’s, followers. On Friday, Mr. Musk tweeted that his acquisition of Twitter was “on hold” due to questions about what% of Twitter’s users are spam or fake accounts.

SparkToro is a tiny team of just three, and Fake Followers is intended for informal, free research (our actual business is audience research software). However, in light of significant public interest, we joined forces with Twitter research tool, Followerwonk (whose owner, Marc Mims, is a longtime friend) to conduct a rigorous analysis answering:

• What is a spam or fake Twitter account?
• What% of active Twitter accounts are spam or fake?
• What% of Mr. Musk’s followers are spam, fake, or inactive?
• Why should our methodology be trusted?
• We address each of these questions below.

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First one: what’s a spam/fake account?

»

“Our definition (which may differ from Twitter’s own) can best be described as follows:

“Spam or Fake Twitter accounts are those that do not regularly have a human being personally composing the content of their tweets, consuming the activity on their timeline, or engaging in the Twitter ecosystem.”

«

Except that would include entirely beneficial automated accounts that tweet the contents of feeds (such as, oh, @theoverspill) or, like @threadreaderapp, link to concatenated threads – such as the Twitter CEO’s today about how they calculate spam accounts.

Meanwhile, Elon Musk looks more and more like someone casting around for a reason not to buy Twitter.
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How a simple ratio came to influence military strategy • WSJ

Josh Zumbrun:

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Early in Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, it wasn’t just Moscow that believed its offensive could succeed quickly. In February, even U.S. officials warned Kyiv could fall in days.

Russians had numbers on their side, or more precisely a number: the 3:1 rule, the ratio by which attackers must outnumber defenders in order to prevail. It is one of several “force ratios” popular in military strategy. Russia, it seemed, could amass that advantage.

The war in Ukraine has brought renewed interest in force ratios. Other ratios in military doctrine include the numbers needed to defeat unprepared defenders, resist counterinsurgencies or counterattack flanks. Though they sound like rules of thumb for a board game like Risk, the ratios have been taught to generations of both American and Soviet and then Russian tacticians, and provide intuitive support for the idea Ukraine was extremely vulnerable.

“I would imagine that most of them are thinking in those terms, that you need something on the order of a 3:1 advantage to break through,” said John Mearsheimer, a University of Chicago professor whose work focuses on security competition between great powers. “It’s clear in this case that the Russians badly miscalculated.”

…Overall, Russia’s military has quadruple the personnel and infantry vehicles, triple the artillery and tanks, and nearly 10 times the armored personnel carriers, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the London-based think tank.

With 190,000 Russian troops concentrated to invade in February, and Ukraine’s military spread across the country, (only 30,000 troops, for example, were estimated to be in Ukraine’s east near the Donbas region) it appeared Russia had the numbers to overwhelm Ukraine.

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Looks like all the textbooks need to be rewritten to cater for drones and directed anti-tank weapons. Though possibly it just needs a section on how not rotating your tyres dilutes your force ratio.
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New study on SIDS is not what the media says it is • ParentData

Emily Oster:

»

Knowing that a baby had an enzyme level of 4 [of butyrylcholinesterase, BChE] might indicate a higher risk, but definitely there are many infants with a level of 4 who survive. This is all very distant from being a perfect or close to perfect predictor of anything. 

That’s the main paper finding. What I take from this, with the paper alone, is an interesting possibility that should be explored more. The sample sizes are small, and with a new theory like this we always want to see more out-of-sample testing. It would also be important to understand whether there are other characteristics that differ across these groups that might be related to enzyme levels and could be driving this result. It certainly seems plausible that BChE (and AChE, acetylcholinesterase) levels are a predictor of SIDS risk, and it is worth more follow-up work to understand it. 

My primary frustration is with the media coverage of it and, in particular, the story with the headline I noted above, which it would seem has permeated the Facebook mom groups. There is just nothing in the paper that supports that headline or most of the article. Yes, the paper produces suggestive evidence that there might be a correlation between this enzyme level and SIDS. But to say it “pinpoints” the reason infants die from SIDS is absolutely not true. 

Perhaps more problematic is this paragraph: 

»

Previously, parents were told SIDS could be prevented if they took proper precautions: laying babies on their backs, not letting them overheat and keeping all toys and blankets out of the crib were a few of the most important preventative steps. 

«

Though not stated explicitly, the implication is that these steps are now no longer necessary. This is definitely false.

«

There’s also a long thread by a neurophysiologist saying much the same, though in some more detail.

So it seems as though SIDS is not a solved problem at all.
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Did Terra operators bail out crypto whales? • New Money Review

Paul Amery:

»

The operators of the collapsed Terra stablecoin ($UST) last week allowed selected holders of the dollar token to cash out at close to 100 cents in the dollar, using cryptocurrency exchanges Gemini and Binance as a conduit.

According to the Luna Foundation Guard, which operates a reserve pool backing $UST and its related token, $LUNA, holders of $2.7bn in face value of $UST were able to sell them for bitcoin in two transactions last week, one with an effective bitcoin/UST exchange rate of $32,334 and the other with an effective exchange rate of $35,054.

The Luna Foundation Guard revealed this information in a series of tweets released this morning.

It did not disclose the timing of the transactions. However, evidence from Elliptic, a cryptocurrency research firm, suggested that the transactions took place on May 9 and early on May 10, when the $UST price traded in secondary markets as low as 60 cents in the dollar.

…This implies that the holders of $UST who were able to sell their tokens for the bitcoin offered by the Luna Foundation Guard were able to exit their positions at close to face value ($1), rather than the deep discounts on offer in the secondary market.

…The two exchanges are now likely to come under increasing pressure to disclose which cryptocurrency market participants were able to exit their Terra stablecoin positions last Monday and Tuesday at close to par value, while retail holders of Terra and Luna have lost nearly all their money.

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This is going to get uncomfortable, I suspect. People lost a lot of money. If some got preferential treatment, this will resound across the sector.
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Miami’s mayor backed MiamiCoin. Then its price dropped 95% • Quartz

Scott Nover and Camille Squires:

»

On Feb. 2, the city of Miami cashed out its cryptocurrency MiamiCoin for the first time, depositing $5.25m into city coffers. Miami mayor Francis Suarez hailed it as a “historic moment” and predicted the cryptocurrency could one day even replace municipal taxes as the government’s primary source of funding.

MiamiCoin’s creator, an organization called CityCoins, has been no less enthusiastic, portraying the coin as a financial experiment that will empower citizens with a “community-driven revenue stream” while spurring new digital city services.

Miami is not the only city with big cryptocurrency dreams. CityCoins announced a similar cryptocurrency for New York in November 2021, and plans to release a coin for Austin, Texas, soon. Other cities have launched their own crypto ventures: Forth Worth, Texas, for example, will soon be running bitcoin mining rigs in city hall.

But only Miami’s mayor has thrown his full endorsement behind a CityCoin-branded cryptocurrency so far. After promoting MiamiCoin to residents and investors since its launch in August, the city of Miami received millions of dollars through its agreement with CityCoins.

Over the last nine months, however, MiamiCoin has lost nearly all of its value, falling about 95% from its September peak to just $0.0032 as of May 13. Its rapid descent has burned investors on the way down, muting the dreams of Miami’s city leaders, and possibly raising red flags for regulators now investigating cryptocurrency transactions.

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New York got NYCCoin in November 2021, and its new mayor tweeted enthusiastically about it in January. Since then it’s fallen in value by 68%. Still time to get out.
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Europe’s largest floating solar farm is ready to come online in Portugal • Electrek

Michelle Lewis:

»

The Alqueva reservoir is western Europe’s largest artificial lake, and the Alqueva Dam is on the Guadiana River, one of the longest in the Iberian Peninsula. The dam is in Alentejo, which is in southern Portugal, near the Spanish border.

The floating solar farm, the size of four soccer fields, is made up of 12,000 solar panels that will generate 7.5GWh annually and will also be paired with lithium batteries that can store 2 GWh. It will be able to power around 1,500 households. EDP, Portugal’s main utility company, built the floating solar farm.

The cool thing about floating solar farms on hydropower reservoirs is that they can be connected to existing links to the power grid. And as Reuters points out, “Excess power generated on sunny days can pump water up into the lake to be stored for use on cloudy days or at night.”

The Alqueva floating solar farm is furthering EDP’s plan to reach net zero by 2030. Renewables, including hydropower, now make up 78% of EDP’s 25.6 gigawatts (GW) of installed capacity.

EDP will expand the Alqueva floating solar farm because, last month, it secured the right to build a second, 70-MW installed capacity floating farm there.

«

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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1800: platforms struggle to remove Buffalo video, will USB-C replace Lightning?, China phone market stalls, and more


Official figures say only 7% of UK car crashes are caused by breaking the speed limit – so what does that mean for built-in electronic limiters? CC-licensed photo by Lee Haywood on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. Off again, on again. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Buffalo gunman clips proliferate on social media following Twitch removal • Engadget

Igor Bonifacic:

»

Following Saturday’s horrific mass shooting in Buffalo, online platforms like Facebook, TikTok and Twitter are seemingly struggling to prevent various versions of the gunman’s livestream from proliferating on their platforms. The shooter, an 18-year-old white male, attempted to broadcast the entire attack on Twitch using a GoPro Hero 7 Black. The company told Engadget it took his channel down within two minutes of the violence starting.

“Twitch has a zero-tolerance policy against violence of any kind and works swiftly to respond to all incidents,” a Twitch spokesperson said. “The user has been indefinitely suspended from our service, and we are taking all appropriate action, including monitoring for any accounts rebroadcasting this content.”

Despite Twitch’s response, that hasn’t stopped the video from proliferating online. According to New York Times reporter Ryan Mac, one link to a version of the livestream that someone used a screen recorder to preserve saw 43,000 interactions. Another Twitter user said they found a Facebook post linking to the video that had been viewed more than 1.8 million times, with an accompanying screenshot suggesting the post did not trigger Facebook’s automated safeguards. A Meta spokesperson told Mac the video violates Facebook’s Community Standards.

Responding to Mac’s Twitter thread, Washington Post reporter Taylor Lorenz said she found TikTok videos that share accounts and terms Twitter users can search for to view the full video. “Clear the vid is all over Twitter,” she said. We’ve reached out to the company for comment.

Preventing terrorists and violent extremists from disseminating their content online is one of the things Facebook, Twitter and a handful of other tech companies said they would do following the 2019 shooting in Christchurch, New Zealand. In the first 24 hours after that attack, Meta said it removed 1.5 million videos, but clips of the shooting continued to circulate on the platform for more than a month after the event.

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This is the challenge that the social media sites are up against: people with motivation to spread bad stuff. It doesn’t have to be a lot of people; a handful with enough motivation can create these problems. Elon Musk really doesn’t have the first idea.
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Leading causes of car accidents UK 2022 • NimbleFins

»

The #1 most common cause of car accidents in Great Britain is the driver (or motorcycle rider) failing to look properly—this factor contributes to 37.8% of car accidents. The next most common causes of car accidents is the diver or rider failing to judge another person’s path or speed (a factor in 19.7% of accidents) and the driver or rider being careless, reckless or in a hurry (18% of accidents). You’ll notice that the percentages add up to more than 100%—this is because many car accidents have more than one contributory factor.

«

Following on from the discussion about speed limiters, “exceeding speed limit” is No.7, and cited in 7.4% of accidents. About a third are “driver/rider failed to look properly”. That’s a bit more difficult to legislate for.
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What kind of financial asset is bitcoin? • Noahpinion

Noah Smith has a longish treatise about what bitcoin might be – money, gold, a sort-of tech stock:

»

As I see it, the useful purpose of this appeal isn’t to make bitcoin the future of money. That will not happen. Instead, the purpose of all the massive apparatus of bitcoin-related guff and mythology and gobbledegook is to onboard people into the crypto world. Once they’re onboarded, they can then take the next step of learning about cryptocurrencies that are cooler and more advanced than bitcoin. (Perhaps it’s no wonder Vitalik [Buterin] is sanguine about the maximalists; in a way, they’re part of his customer acquisition team!)

This theory of bitcoin as the “gateway drug” of the crypto-verse sort of ties all of the previous theories together. The ideas of bitcoin as the future of money and bitcoin as digital gold get people interested. Those people then get introduced to crypto applications like ICOs and DeFi and whatever web3 ends up being. And because the newbies just joining the party come in owning a bunch of bitcoin, that ends up being one of the main currencies that gets used in the new applications — which slows bitcoin’s slide into technological obsolescence.

«

This would be believable, except I think other cryptocurrencies are now newbies’ introduction to crypto, because bitcoin is seen as a bit big and even risky; they know it can go down, whereas the “new” crypto will, they’re promised, only go upppppp. Which isn’t true, but it sounds good.
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India and Pakistan’s brutal heat wave poised to resurge • Yale Climate Connections

Jeff Masters:

»

Because of the heat wave, India’s wheat crop is expected to be 4% lower than the 2021 harvest, breaking a string of five consecutive record harvests. Even with the heat wave, India’s wheat exports could beat last year’s shipments, helping replace the lack of wheat exports from Ukraine and Russia this year. However, some traders project that export restrictions may occur in India because of the heat wave.

While the heat index – which measures heat stress due to high temperatures combined with high humidity – is often used to quantify dangerous heat, a more precise measure of heat stress is the wet-bulb temperature, which can be measured by putting a wet cloth around the bulb of a thermometer and then blowing air across the cloth. The wet-bulb temperature increases with increasing temperature and humidity and is a measure of “mugginess.”

Since human skin temperature averages close to 35º Celsius (95°F), wet-bulb temperatures above that critical value prevent all people from dispelling internal heat, leading to fatal consequences within six hours, even for healthy people in well-ventilated conditions. The US National Weather Service defines the “Danger” threshold for wet-bulb at 24.6º Celsius (76.3°F), and “Extreme Danger” at 29.1º Celsius (84.4°F), assuming a 45% relative humidity.

However, experiments show that a wet-bulb temperature considerably lower—near 31º Celsius (88°F)—is likely fatal for young, healthy people.

«

To reiterate: this is what global heating does. Since this article appeared, India has said that it will limit wheat exports. That will have big knock-on effects: wheat is used for animal feed, paper strengthening, pharmaceutical products, and others.
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China chipmaker SMIC says phone, PC demand has dropped ‘like a rock’ • Nikkei Asia

Cheng Ting-Fang and Lauly Li:

»

CEO Zhao Haijun said the Russia-Ukraine war and China’s COVID lockdowns have massively dented demand for consumer electronics and home appliances, which in turn has led to a “serious” adjustment in chip orders for those segments.

“Many smartphone, PC and home appliance companies had exposure in Russia and Ukraine, and their revenues [from those markets] are now gone. Sales in their home market [of China] have also fallen due to the COVID situation domestically,” Zhao said.

“We cannot yet see an end to the downtrends in these segments,” Zhao added. “There are at least 200 million units of smartphones that will disappear suddenly this year and the majority of them are from our domestic Chinese phone makers.”

Demand for consumer electronics “dropped like a rock, very seriously,” the executive said. “Some of our customers are holding more than five months of that type of inventory.”

However, Zhao said SMIC’s factories are still running at 100% capacity, as the company has been allocating resources to products that are still in great shortage, such as power management chips and microcontrollers used in green energy, electric vehicles and industrial applications.

Given the market turmoil, Zhao said, only chip developers with top international clients can continue to flourish. “Those who only serve the local market [in China] will absolutely see their business seriously impacted,” he said.

«

Which is going to mean a lot of cheap smartphone companies going out of business.
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Musk’s question about bots is nothing new for Twitter • The Washington Post

Joseph Menn and Elizabeth Dwoskin:

»

When Elon Musk tweeted Friday that his deal to buy Twitter was “on hold” as he looked into the extent of Twitter’s bot problem, he was poking an open wound at the social media company.

…Musk was referring to a Twitter regulatory filing this month that said false or spam accounts constituted fewer than 5% of its 229 million daily active users.

Yet the number is hardly new: Twitter has been giving the same estimate for nearly a decade, even if it seemed to be telling less than the whole story and was a subject of internal conflict. Twitter declined to comment for this story.

“That 5% is a very opportune and chosen metric,” said a former employee who asked for anonymity because he did not want to alienate a former employer. “They didn’t want it to be big, but also not small, because then they could get caught in a lie.”

Twitter’s history with spam goes as far back as its 2013 public offering, when it disclosed the risk of automated accounts — a problem faced by all social media companies. For years, people wanting to manipulate public opinion could buy hundreds of fake accounts in order to pump up a celebrity or a product’s standing.

…Critics have argued that Twitter has an incentive to downplay the number of fake accounts on its platform and that the bot problem is far worse than the company admits. The company also allows some automation of accounts, such as news aggregators that pass along articles about specific topics or weather reports at set times or postings of photos every hour.

«

On Sunday Musk (who deletes his tweets on a 24-hour basis now) was tweeting that “there is some chance it might be over 90% of daily active users, which is the metric that matters to advertisers. Very odd that the most popular tweets of all time were only liked by ~2% of daily active users.”

I don’t think that’s odd – liking tweets isn’t a thing many people do. I do suspect Musk is looking for an excuse to back out of the deal, and “too many bots” might be his pretend break clause. (In reality he’s signed a contract to buy it, but Twitter would never be able to make it work.)
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SIDS: Scientist who lost her young son claims to have found way of spotting babies at higher risk of cot death • MSN

Paul Gallagher:

»

An Australian expert whose young son died in his sleep claims to have found a way of spotting babies at high risk of cot death.

Dr Carmel Harrington and a team of scientists at the University of Sydney found babies who died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had lower levels of an enzyme that helps humans rouse from sleep.

SIDS, commonly known as cot death, is the unexpected and unexplained death of a healthy baby while asleep. The vast majority (86%) occur before they reach six months.

The research team found that the enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase, measured in dried blood spots taken 2-3 days after birth, was significantly lower in babies who subsequently died of SIDS compared to a control group and in non-SIDS infant deaths.

Researchers behind the finding suggest the lower levels of the enzyme represent a dysfunction of the nervous system – and therefore an inherent vulnerability of the SIDS infants.

They concluded: “This finding represents the possibility for the identification of infants at risk for SIDS prior to death and opens new avenues for future research into specific interventions.”

All funding for the study, which is published in The Lancet’s eBioMedicine, was provided by a crowd funding campaign in memory of Dr Harrington’s son Damien, who died 29 years ago before his second birthday.

Three years after Damien’s death a friend’s baby daughter also died leaving Dr Harrington, a former biochemist who has two other children, to quit her job as a lawyer and return to medical research.

«

I don’t think there’s ever been such a consequential piece of scientific research achieved through crowdfunding before. SIDS kills about 200 children in the UK per year, around 3,400 in the US. Identifying this enzyme is only the first (though big) clue; there’s plenty more detective work to find out if it’s a cause or an associated effect.
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Report: Apple is testing USB-C iPhone models for 2023 • Ars Technica

Samuel Axon:

»

Apple is testing iPhones that use the industry-standard USB-C port, according to a report in Bloomberg citing people with knowledge of the situation.

Since 2012, Apple’s smartphones have used the company’s proprietary Lightning connector. But more recently, the slightly larger USB-C port has come to dominate consumer electronics, including most of Apple’s other products. Consumers, reviewers, and even government regulators have called for Apple to drop Lightning in favor of USB-C in recent years.

This has led Apple to a tough spot, with three possible paths forward, each with some significant downsides.

On one hand, the company could stick with Lightning—that would mean that customers who’ve been using the iPhone for a while wouldn’t have to buy new adapters, wires, or chargers. Apple’s ecosystem of accessory-makers wouldn’t have to go back to the drawing board to release updated products for the new connection.

On the other, Apple could switch to USB-C, making the iPhone play more nicely with other gadgets, including the Mac. But that move could trigger consumer confusion and chaos among accessory-makers. It would also loosen Apple’s control over the user experience.

The third option would be to go all-wireless, but wireless connections usually don’t transmit power or data as quickly or efficiently.

According to Bloomberg’s sources, Apple is actively testing the second option — switching to USB-C — in no small part because the European Union appears to be moving forward with a law that would require companies that make “mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones and headsets, handheld video-game consoles and portable speakers” to standardise around USB-C.

«

A question: what does “testing” iPhones with USB-C mean? The circuitry to handle the power would be inside – so it would look like any other iPhone except the socket would be different. These would be for next year at the earliest, and you’d expect the design to be set around now. So maybe Bloomberg means “designing” iPhones with USB-C. Ten years on, maybe Lightning is going away. Mark Gurman (who wrote the Bloomberg story) says Apple is planning on including adapters – which makes this sound entirely believable.
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The most revealing pandemic book yet • The Atlantic

Richard J. Tofel:

»

[Former coordinator of the White House Coronavirus Task Force, Deborah] Birx does a very good job of distilling what went wrong. She repeatedly emphasizes what she identifies as the principal fault in the Trump administration’s pandemic response: a failure to recognize the importance of asymptomatic transmission (thus the book’s title). She laments testing problems, including initial refusals to enlist the private sector, mistakes at the CDC, and later failures to ramp up diagnostics. Birx also cites the CDC’s consistent failure to develop good data about the pandemic, and places this at the center of reforms she proposes toward the book’s end.

But what sets [the book, called] Silent Invasion apart is how Birx, with the writing assistance of Gary Brozek, unhesitatingly names names (and dates and places). She does so with much more detail and nuance than we’ve had from anyone else. Birx paints a portrait of an administration in full, made up of people with a mix of talents and motivations. Where other chroniclers describe the White House as if it had just one occupant, Birx gives us the full cast. The book’s first 150 pages, on the period from January through March 2020, are especially riveting. In the early crucial weeks of the crisis, she writes, “some roaming the halls of the West Wing believed that the less we did, the less we would be held accountable for whatever was about to happen.”

Birx has her own list of bad guys. The worst is Scott Atlas, the radiologist whose epidemiology advice Trump came to take. Atlas, she writes, repeatedly responded to group emails from her by hitting “Reply All” and then removing her from the list before sending.

…Birx refuses to sum up her views of Trump personally, but she offers more than enough detail for readers, including historians, to reach their own conclusions. She describes her first meeting with Trump, on March 2, 2020, when she tried to explain to him that the virus “is not the flu.” Trump listened for a minute, briefly challenged her, then literally changed the channel on one of the TV screens he had simultaneously been watching.

«

Birx came up through the military, and offers this as the reason/excuse she didn’t stand up more publicly to Trump in particular. But Antony Fauci didn’t, and he didn’t. One has to feel they all felt they could do more good inside the tent – even if they were being left off the Reply All circuit. (What a vile act.)
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1799: why Twitter lost its celebrities, making computers much faster, Facebook plans hardware cuts, and more


In a radical experiment, plants have been grown in Moon soil (here on Earth). Does that mean we could do the same up there? CC-licensed photo by NASA on The CommonsNASA on The Commons on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. Nineteen down! I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


For celebrities, Twitter is no longer the place to be. Can Elon Musk bring them back? • The Washington Post

Taylor Lorenz, Steven Zeitchik and Will Oremus:

»

Interviews with 17 people who represent, consult and tweet for celebrities show that Twitter is viewed as a high-risk, low-reward platform for many A-list entertainers. It’s a place where the discourse has become so politicized that many prefer not to engage personally at all, delegating tweeting duties to underlings or outside agents who post anodyne promotional messages. They have also been turned off by harassment or abuse.

Instead, they’ve turned to platforms such as Instagram and TikTok, which offer slicker video tools and more-robust safety features that give users more ways of blocking out unwanted interactions.

Twitter declined to comment but pointed to examples of celebrities who remain highly active on the platform. For instance, the actress Zendaya, who has nearly 21 million followers, tweets during each episode of the TV show “Euphoria,” and rapper Kendrick Lamar, with almost 12 million followers, announced his new album via tweet.

…the 2016 election further polarized Twitter as Trump-related news began to crowd out other trending topics.

Embracing the shift, Twitter began billing itself as a news app and changed its category in app stores from social networking, where it had been listed alongside rivals such as Facebook and Instagram, to news. But entertainers balked at hurling themselves into online discourse and the news cycle.

“Once Trump came into office, politics became such a huge thing,” said music executive Freddie Morris, former VP of digital at Career Artist Management, who ran celebrities’ social strategies on Twitter. Maroon 5 singer Adam Levine “went from Twitter to Instagram, like a lot of artists, and never came back.” While Levine still has a Twitter account, posts are primarily from his team and he’s not nearly as active or candid as before. He has nearly twice as many followers on Instagram as on Twitter.

«

Personally I never* follow anyone who has more than (at most) 250,000 followers, because they tend to be broadcasters; understandably because the level of responses is just bonkers if they’re the least bit interactive – and Twitter almost demands interactivity, unlike Instagram. I don’t see any obvious way for Twitter to change that.

* exception for Chrissy Teigen. Relatably human. (But: hasn’t tweeted for more than a month.)
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Twitter CEO Parag Agrawal fires two top executives, freezes hiring • The Verge

Richard Lawler:

»

Twitter is shaking up its top leadership. The first move came as consumer product leader Kayvon Beykpour announced on Twitter that current CEO Parag Agrawal “asked me to leave after letting me know that he wants to take the team in a different direction.”

Bruce Falck, the general manager of revenue and head of product for its business side, confirmed in a (now deleted) tweet that he was also fired by Agrawal.

Now Jay Sullivan, who we spoke to in March about Twitter’s plans to add 100 million daily users, will take over as both the head of product and interim head of revenue. These moves are occurring at the same time Elon Musk moves forward with his $44bn purchase of Twitter, although he hasn’t taken ownership of the company yet.

In a memo to employees obtained by The Verge, Agrawal wrote, “At the beginning of the pandemic in 2020, the decision was made to invest aggressively to deliver big growth in audience and revenue, and as a company we did not hit intermediate milestones that enable confidence in these goals.”

Twitter spokesperson Adrian Zamora confirmed the changes, saying in a statement to The Verge, “We can confirm that Kayvon Beykpour and Bruce Falck are leaving Twitter. Jay Sullivan is the new GM of Bluebird and interim GM of Goldbird. Effective this week, we are pausing most hiring and backfills, except for business critical roles. We are pulling back on non-labor costs to ensure we are being responsible and efficient.”

«

What madness is this, where Twitter is firing people before the takeover? Is Agrawal just taking out some sort of animus against people while he can? One of them was still on parental leave.

And speaking of that takeover..
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Twitter market cap has dropped to $9bn below Musk purchase price • CNBC

Lauren Feiner:

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As Elon Musk pursues ownership of Twitter, shares of the social media company are dropping, suggesting some concern among investors that the deal won’t reach the finish line.

Twitter has slid about 12% since reaching its high for the year in late April. As of midday on Thursday, the stock was trading at around $46, well below the $54.20 that Musk agreed to pay on April 27. The difference represents about $9bn in market value.

Though Twitter’s board approved the purchase, it could still take months for the deal to close, and there’s no guarantee that it will. Musk would have to pay a $1bn breakup fee should he choose to walk away. The Tesla CEO is worth more than $220bn.

“The market is having marginally less confidence that the deal will go through due to regulatory challenges,” Mark Mahaney, an analyst at Evercore ISI, said in an email, adding that this is his “very quick interpretation” of the stock movement.

Before Musk made his bid to buy Twitter outright, he failed to disclose a more than 9% stake in the company within the SEC’s mandatory 10-day window.

«

There must be some prediction market for how likely this deal is to go through, but I can’t find it on a quick search. Suggestions welcome.

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Fastest-ever logic gates could make computers a million times faster • New Atlas

Michael Irving:

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Logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of computers, and researchers at the University of Rochester have now developed the fastest ones ever created. By zapping graphene and gold with laser pulses, the new logic gates are a million times faster than those in existing computers, demonstrating the viability of “lightwave electronics.”

Logic gates take two inputs, compare them, and then output a signal based on the result. They can, for example, output a 1 if both incoming signals are a 1 or a 0, or if either or neither of them is a 1, among other “rules.” Billions of individual logic gates are crammed into chips to create processors, memory and other electronic components.

Logic gates don’t work instantaneously though – there’s a delay on the order of nanoseconds as they process the inputs. That’s plenty fast enough for modern computers, but there’s always room for improvement. And now the Rochester team’s new logic gates blow them out of the water, processing information in mere femtoseconds, which are a million times shorter than nanoseconds.

To reach these extreme speeds, the team made junctions consisting of a graphene wire connecting two gold electrodes. When the graphene was zapped with synchronized pairs of laser pulses, electrons in the material were excited, sending them zipping off towards one of the electrodes, generating an electrical current.

By adjusting the phase of the laser pulses, the team was able to generate a burst of one of two types of charge carriers, which would either add up or cancel each other out – the former can be considered a 1 output and the latter a 0. The end result is an ultrafast logic gate, marking the first proof of concept of an as-yet theoretical field known as lightwave electronics.

“It will probably be a very long time before this technique can be used in a computer chip, but at least we now know that lightwave electronics is practically possible,” said Tobias Boolakee, lead researcher on the study.

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This is a bit like a speedometer on a car saying 160mph: you’re highly unlikely ever to achieve it. But it can give you a warm feeling knowing it might be possible.
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A first: scientists grow plants in soil from Moon • EurekAlert!

»

Scientists have grown plants in soil from the Moon, a first in human history and a milestone in lunar and space exploration.

In a new paper published in the journal Communications Biology, University of Florida researchers showed that plants can successfully sprout and grow in lunar soil. Their study also investigated how plants respond biologically to the Moon’s soil, also known as lunar regolith, which is radically different from soil found on Earth.

This work is a first step toward one day growing plants for food and oxygen on the Moon or during space missions. More immediately, this research comes as the Artemis Program plans to return humans to the Moon.

“Artemis will require a better understanding of how to grow plants in space,” said Rob Ferl, one of the study’s authors and a distinguished professor of horticultural sciences in the UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS).

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I guess the astronauts could provide the fertiliser, The Martian-style? In this experiment they added some “nutrient solution”. One has to bear in mind that the plants would be under cover, and protected from the harsh vacuum. Even so it sounds like a pretty tough challenge.
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Exclusive: Facebook-owner Meta tells hardware staffers to prepare for cutbacks • Reuters

Katie Paul:

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Facebook-owner Meta Platforms is preparing cutbacks in its Reality Labs division, a unit at the center of the company’s strategy to refocus on hardware products and the “metaverse,” a spokesperson confirmed to Reuters on Wednesday.

Chief Technology Officer Andrew Bosworth told Reality Labs staffers during a weekly Q&A session on Tuesday to expect the changes to be announced within a week, according to a summary of his comments viewed by Reuters.

The Meta spokesperson confirmed that Bosworth told staffers the division could not afford to do some projects anymore and would have to postpone others, without specifying which projects would be affected. She said Meta was not planning layoffs as part of the changes.

The world’s biggest social media company last month told investors that it would scale back costs in 2022, following a drop in Facebook users early this year that caused the stock to plunge. read more

In an earnings call in late April, Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg said Meta planned to “slow the pace” of some longer-term investments in areas like its business platform, artificial intelligence infrastructure and Reality Labs.

Meta lowered its expected 2022 total expenses to between $87bn and $92bn, down from its prior outlook of between $90bn and $95bn. Last week, it told employees it was reducing hiring for most mid-to-senior-level positions, as initially reported by Insider.

«

Good to know that even Facebook has some limits on the crazy money it will spend on the metaverse stuff.
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How Facebook undercut the Oversight Board • Platformer

Casey Newton:

»

In the wake of Meta’s decision to allow calls for violence against the invaders, Russia said it had engaged in “extremist” activities. That potentially put hundreds of Meta employees at risk of being jailed. And while the company has now successfully removed its employees from the country, the extremism language could mean that they will never be allowed to return to the country so long as they work at Meta. Moreover, it could mean that employees’ families in Russia could still be subject to persecution.

There is precedent for both outcomes under Russia’s extremism laws.

So what does the Oversight Board have to do with it?

Meta had asked [the Oversight Board] for a fairly broad opinion about its approach to moderation and Russia. The board has already shown a willingness to make expansive policy recommendations, even on narrower cases submitted by users. After asking for the opinion, the company’s legal and security teams became concerned that anything the board said might somehow be used against employees or their families in Russia, either now or in the future.

Technically, the Oversight Board is a distinct entity from Meta. But plenty of Westerners still refuse to recognize that distinction, and company lawyers worried that Russia wouldn’t, either.

All of this is compounded by the fact that tech platforms have gotten little to no support to date, from either the United States or the European Union, in their struggles to keep key communication services up and running in Russia and Ukraine. It’s not obvious to me what western democracies could do to reduce platforms’ fears about how Russia might treat employees and their families. But discussions with executives at several big tech companies over the past year have made it clear that they all feel like they’re out on a limb.

All that said, today’s news still represents a significant blow to the Oversight Board’s already fragile credibility — and arguably reduces its value to Facebook.

«

The Oversight Board’s authority was never huge, and it’s being eroded bit by bit.
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Some top 100,000 websites collect everything you type—before you hit submit • WIRED

Lily Hay Newman:

»

Researchers from KU Leuven, Radboud University, and University of Lausanne crawled and analyzed the top 100,000 websites, looking at scenarios in which a user is visiting a site while in the European Union and visiting a site from the United States. They found that 1,844 websites gathered an EU user’s email address without their consent, and a staggering 2,950 logged a US user’s email in some form. Many of the sites seemingly do not intend to conduct the data-logging but incorporate third-party marketing and analytics services that cause the behavior.

After specifically crawling sites for password leaks in May 2021, the researchers also found 52 websites in which third parties, including the Russian tech giant Yandex, were incidentally collecting password data before submission. The group disclosed their findings to these sites, and all 52 instances have since been resolved.

“If there’s a Submit button on a form, the reasonable expectation is that it does something—that it will submit your data when you click it,” says Güneş Acar, a professor and researcher in Radboud University’s digital security group and one of the leaders of the study. “We were super surprised by these results. We thought maybe we were going to find a few hundred websites where your email is collected before you submit, but this exceeded our expectations by far.”

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Grabbing your password before you submit it? That’s pretty bad.
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Crypto industry shaken as Tether’s dollar peg snaps • Financial Times

Adam Samson, Scott Chipolina and Eva Szalay:

»

Tether aims to maintain a peg to the dollar by keeping up a store of reserves of traditional assets. There are 80bn Tether tokens in circulation, meaning it should hold $80bn in assets — a sum that compares with the biggest hedge funds in the world. But details around how those reserves are managed are scant, and not subject to audits under internationally recognised accounting standards.

Paolo Ardoino, Tether’s chief technology officer, on Thursday vowed to defend the token’s dollar peg and said the company had bought “a ton” of US government debt, which it is willing to offload in that effort. But in an interview with the Financial Times, he declined to give details about its $40bn hoard of US government bonds because he did not “want to give our secret sauce”.

“Our counterparties are not public. We are not a public company,” he said. “So we keep that information [to] ourselves, but we are working with many big institutions in the traditional financial space.” 

The coins can be lent as collateral for trading, or to generate high yields in the form of interest. They are supposed to have a fixed price and be backed by reserves at all times, allowing users to redeem them. However, critics have questioned where some stablecoins keep their reserves and whether the assets can be quickly recovered and redeemed.

Last year, the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission fined Tether $41m, claiming the company made “untrue or misleading” statements about its reserves.

Ardoino also said the stablecoin issuer is working on obtaining an audit, but said the big accounting firms “are quite scared for reputational risk in touching crypto at this moment”. Tether has had $2bn in redemption requests in the past day, an unusually high number, Ardoino added.

He said the group had recently been shifting away from holdings of commercial paper, a type of short-term corporate debt typically sold by highly rated companies, to Treasury bills. Treasury bills now account for around half of the group’s $80bn in reserves, he added.

«

I don’t for a moment believe that Tether holds $80bn of assets, and nor does the CFTC. But it’s a convenient fiction for those who use the crypto markets to think that it does and so they’re not just passing Monopoly notes around when they do transactions. If they stop believing that, though…

(There’s also an in-depth writeup of what happened to UST/Luna.)
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified

Start Up No.1798: Google’s I/O detailed, how and why Terra lost its peg, China military rehearses Taiwan “unification”, and more


A Formula 1 pit stop team has skills that have turned out to be useful for intensive care teams – saving lives on the way. CC-licensed photo by United Autosports on Flickr.

You can sign up to receive each day’s Start Up post by email. You’ll need to click a confirmation link, so no spam.

A selection of 9 links for you. Free of pegs. I’m @charlesarthur on Twitter. Observations and links welcome.


Google’s biggest announcements at I/O 2022 • The Verge

Mitchell Clark has the roundup, which features another phone (preorder on July 21st! Leave that browser tab open for ten weeks!), and pre-announced another two phones, AirPods Pro copies, a Pixel Watch (though Clark says “we don’t know what kind of chip it’ll be powered by nor do we know how much it’ll cost”) to launch in the autumn – keep another browser tab open – and these:

»

Google announced that it plans to release an Android-powered tablet next year to act as a “perfect companion for Pixel with a larger form factor.” The writing for this one has been on the wall for a while. (Android 12L focused on large-screen experiences, and there have been some tablet-related hires over in Mountain View.) But it’s good to hear that Google is looking to get into tablets again. The only real hardware detail we have about Google’s upcoming device is that it’ll have a Tensor chip in it.

Right at the end of its presentation, Google showed off a pair of AR glasses that were capable of real-time translation during a conversation. There are pretty much no details on whether this will be a product people can buy, but it’s certainly interesting to see more hints of Google’s plan for joining companies like Snap and Meta in the race to put AR on your face.

«

Scaled those glasses back a fair bit since the excitement of Google I/O 2012. Do you remember the promise of that concept video? Plus what happened to the restaurant-booking voice AI?


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Terra (UST) goes from DeFi darling to death spiral • Bloomberg

Emily Nicolle:

»

A month ago, the future looked bright for Terra and its main backer Do Kwon: A consortium called the Luna Foundation Guard (LFG) aimed at providing collateral for Luna — then at an all-time high value of $119 — had bought more than $1.5bn in Bitcoin to shore up UST’s peg, with its members reading like a Who’s Who of crypto.

But on Monday, all of the mechanisms that were supposed to keep UST stable weren’t. It fell to a low of 60 cents on that day, and reached a further low of around 20 cents in another crash on Wednesday, taking its market value down from $18.4bn to $5bn. Luna also fell considerably, dropping to as low as $2.35.

“Many people were caught off guard,” said Nikita Fadeev, partner and head of crypto fund Fasanara Digital, which de-risked its position in advance of the crash. “Everything broke there. It is full capitulation.”

Exactly why all of Terra’s carefully-planned mechanisms failed to do their job remains unclear, and conspiracy theories abound about shadowy actors with untold wealth to play with. But one thing’s for certain: Kwon isn’t going down without a fight. 

He’s now attempting to raise $1.5bn from new and old investors alike to provide more collateral to UST, hoping to rebuild the token’s liquidity after it virtually disappeared from order books overnight. Some suspect that $1.5bn won’t even be enough, and it could take days, if not weeks, for UST to re-peg to the dollar.

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This has wiped out a lot of people. The theory is this: someone calculated that if the Terra/Luna pairing was disrupted, the LFG would have to sell a lot of bitcoin to stabilise it; that would drive down the price of bitcoin.

So they borrowed a billion dollars or so of bitcoin at a high price, disrupted the Terra/Luna pairing, and when LFG had to sell bitcoin and the price went down, they repaid the loan – effectively buying the bitcoin at the lower price, and kept the difference.
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China surrounds Taiwan for massive invasion ‘rehearsal’ drills • American Military News

Ryan Morgan:

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The Chinese military deployed forces all around the island of Taiwan over the weekend in a set of large-scale military drills that one Chinese military analyst called a “rehearsal of possible real action.”

On Monday, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) announced its Eastern Theater Command organized maritime, aerial, conventional missile and other forces around Taiwan and carried out drills around the island from Friday to Sunday. The Eastern Theater Command said the drills were intended “to test and improve the joint operations capability of multiple services and arms.”

While Taiwan governs itself as an independent nation, China considers the island a part of its territory and Chinese officials have repeatedly discussed “reunification” with the island, including by means of military force.

The Chinese state-run Global Times publication reported maritime, aerial, conventional missile and “other forces” participated in the drills around Taiwan. During the drills, China’s Liaoning aircraft carrier deployed east of the island while a large number of Chinese aircraft and warships carried out drills to the island’s west.

The Ministry of National Defence for the Republic of China (the formal name of the Taiwanese government) documented several instances of Chinese military aircraft entering its air defense identification zone (ADIZ) over the course of the three-day exercise.

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Not now, China. (Which perhaps is why China thinks: maybe now, China.) The Global Times says “the PLA exercise was a partial rehearsal of a possible reunification-by-force operation”. When people tell you what they’re planning…
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Democrats are sleepwalking toward climate disaster • The Atlantic

Robinson Meyer:

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On Monday night, I saw one of the most despair-inducing performances about the hope of climate action that I’ve witnessed in years.

Nancy Pelosi, the Speaker of the House, took the stage here at the Aspen Ideas: Climate festival to discuss what congressional Democrats are doing on climate change. Her remarks were more effective as a litany of missed opportunities. Susan Goldberg, recently the editor in chief of National Geographic, now a dean at Arizona State University, asked the Speaker point-blank whether Democrats were going to pass climate legislation, and Pelosi all but shrugged. The House has already passed a roughly $2 trillion bill containing President Joe Biden’s climate priorities, she said. Now it was in the Senate’s hands. If it happened to get a bill back to her, the House would pass it.

Missing was any sense that this legislation is a make-or-break moment for the broader Democratic caucus. Gone was any suggestion that if Democrats fail to pass a bill this term, then America’s climate commitment under the Paris Agreement will be out of reach, and worse heat waves, larger wildfires, and damaging famines across the country and around the world within the next decade and a half will be all but assured.

Pelosi did not seem to understand, really, why Congress needed to pass a climate law this session. (She seemed to blame the fossil-fuel industry for the current Congress’s inaction.) She repeatedly justified climate action by saying it was “for the children.” This became the rhetorical leitmotif of her remarks—Congress had to act “for the children.” Explaining why she wanted more women in Congress, she said that they had to learn to “throw a punch—for the children.” That line was how she closed.

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The British government, with an ostensibly right-wing government, is doing a lot more on the green agenda than the US, with an ostensibly left-wing government. But labels are deceptive. Plus the US political system is sclerotic. The Democrats look likely to let power slip away over the next two years. We’ll all suffer.
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Google is beta testing its AI future with AI Test Kitchen • The Verge

James Vincent:

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[Google senior director of product management, Josh] Woodward is showing me AI Test Kitchen, an Android app that will give select users limited access to Google’s latest and greatest AI language model, LaMDA 2. The model itself is an update to the original LaMDA announced at last year’s I/O and has the same basic functionality: you talk to it, and it talks back. But Test Kitchen wraps the system in a new, accessible interface, which encourages users to give feedback about its performance.

As Woodward explains, the idea is to create an experimental space for Google’s latest AI models. “These language models are very exciting, but they’re also very incomplete,” he says. “And we want to come up with a way to gradually get something in the hands of people to both see hopefully how it’s useful but also give feedback and point out areas where it comes up short.”

The app has three modes: “Imagine It,” “Talk About It,” and “List It,” with each intended to test a different aspect of the system’s functionality. “Imagine It” asks users to name a real or imaginary place, which LaMDA will then describe (the test is whether LaMDA can match your description); “Talk About It” offers a conversational prompt (like “talk to a tennis ball about dog”) with the intention of testing whether the AI stays on topic; while “List It” asks users to name any task or topic, with the aim of seeing if LaMDA can break it down into useful bullet points (so, if you say “I want to plant a vegetable garden,” the response might include sub-topics like “What do you want to grow?” and “Water and care”).

AI Test Kitchen will be rolling out in the US in the coming months but won’t be on the Play Store for just anyone to download. Woodward says Google hasn’t fully decided how it will offer access but suggests it will be on an invitation-only basis, with the company reaching out to academics, researchers, and policymakers to see if they’re interested in trying it out.

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“List It” definitely sounds useful for task-oriented work. The other two.. I don’t quite see the point. Shouldn’t AI be good for organising information and then repeating it back to us?
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Cautionary tales from cryptoland • Harvard Business Review

Thomas Stackpole talks to Molly White, who has been documenting the madness of crowds, aka web3:

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MW: If a person’s wallet address is known and they are using a popular chain like Ethereum to transact, anyone [else] can see all transactions they’ve made.

Imagine if you went on a first date, and when you paid them back for your half of the meal, they could now see every other transaction you’d ever made — not just the public transactions on some app you used to transfer the cash but any transactions: the split checks with all of your previous dates, that monthly transfer to your therapist, the debts you’re paying off (or not), the charities to which you’re donating (or not), the amount you’re putting in a retirement account (or not). What if they could see the location of the corner store by your apartment where you so frequently go to grab a pint of ice cream at 10 PM? And this would also be visible to your ex-partners, your estranged family members, your prospective employers, or any number of outside parties interested in collecting your data and using it for any purpose they like. If you had a stalker or had left an abusive relationship or were the target of harassment, the granular details of your life are right there.

There are some blockchains that try to obfuscate these types of details for privacy purposes. But there are trade-offs here: While transparency can enable harassment, the features that make it possible to achieve privacy in a trustless system also enable financial crimes like money laundering. It is also very difficult to use those currencies (and to cash them out to traditional forms of currency). There are various techniques that people can use to try to remain anonymous, but they tend to require technical skill and quite a lot of work on the user’s end to maintain that anonymity.

TS: This point of view seems almost totally absent from the conversation. Why do you think that is?

MW: I think a lot of companies haven’t put much thought into the technology’s abuse potential. I’m surprised at how often I bring it up and the person I’m talking to admits that it’s never crossed their mind.

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Facebook’s new AI system has a ‘high propensity’ for racism and bias • Vice

Janus Rose:

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Facebook and its parent company, Meta, recently released a new tool that can be used to quickly develop state-of-the-art AI. But according to the company’s researchers, the system has the same problem as its predecessors: It’s extremely bad at avoiding results that reinforce racist and sexist stereotypes.

The new system, called OPT-175B, is a kind of template known as a large language model, a collection of pre-trained components that are increasingly used in machine-learning tools that process human language. More recently, natural language processing systems have been used to produce some uncannily accurate results, like the ability to generate images from a short text description. But large language models have been repeatedly criticized for encoding biases into machine-learning systems, and Facebook’s model seems to be no different—or even worse—than the tools that preceded it. 

In a paper accompanying the release, Meta researchers write that the model “has a high propensity to generate toxic language and reinforce harmful stereotypes, even when provided with a relatively innocuous prompt.” This means it’s easy to get biased and harmful results even when you’re not trying. The system is also vulnerable to “adversarial prompts,” where small, trivial changes in phrasing can be used to evade the system’s safeguards and produce toxic content. 

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In the paper they explicitly acknowledge that there’s a problem, and essentially seem to believe it’s to do with the dataset. Which it is. If you train a system with “dialogue” from the internet, it’s going to come from forums (though this isn’t overt), and we all know why Godwin’s Law came about; in some cases it’s actually true.
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Netflix tells employees ads may come by the end of 2022 • The New York Times

John Koblin and Nicole Sperling:

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Netflix could introduce its lower-priced ad-supported tier by the end of the year, a more accelerated timeline than originally indicated, the company told employees in a recent note.

In the note, Netflix executives said they were aiming to introduce the ad tier in the final three months of the year, said two people who shared details of the communication on the condition of anonymity to describe internal company discussions. The note also said Netflix planned to begin cracking down on password sharing among its subscriber base around the same time, the people said.

Last month, Netflix stunned the media industry and Madison Avenue when it revealed that it would begin offering a lower-priced subscription featuring ads, after years of publicly stating that commercials would never be seen on the streaming platform.

But Netflix is facing significant business challenges. In announcing first-quarter earnings last month, Netflix said it lost 200,000 subscribers in the first three months of the year — the first time that has happened in a decade — and expected to lose two million more in the months to come. Since the subscriber announcement, Netflix’s share price has dropped sharply, wiping away roughly $70bn in the company’s market capitalization.

Reed Hastings, Netflix’s co-chief executive, told investors that the company would examine the possibility of introducing an advertising-supported platform and that it would try to “figure it out over the next year or two.”

… in the note to employees, Netflix executives invoked their competitors, saying HBO and Hulu have been able to “maintain strong brands while offering an ad-supported service.”

“Every major streaming company excluding Apple has or has announced an ad-supported service,” the note said. “For good reason, people want lower-priced options.”

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As expected, the signs were clear enough – it’s approached an outside company about ad infrastructure.
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Formula 1 tech in everyday use • Trung T. Phan

Phan writes occasional fascinating threads on Twitter, and then gathers them together on a page. After pointing out how many F1 innovations have come to our roads (paddle gearshifts, push-button ignition, disc brakes, regenerative brakes, aerodynamic design) he also notes that:

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F1 technology and best practices have also found its way into non-road car industries.

Hospitals. This is my favourite example of F1 knowledge transfer. In the mid-90s, a Children’s Hospital in the UK improved its ICU hand-off process by consulting with the Ferrari F1 pit crew team. 

The hospital recorded its surgery room operation and Ferrari suggested a new protocol. One big change was for the hospital to have the equivalent of a pit crew “lollipop man”; this is the individual that holds a sign on a long stick and only waves a driver through after making sure everyone else on the team has put the tires on. 

After changing its protocol, the hospital’s error rate dropped from 30% to 10%.

The Williams F1 pit team similarly helped a hospital in Wales improve its neonatal resuscitation process.

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Apparently Mercedes calls F1 “the fastest R&D lab in the world”; McLaren had a division which sold its telemetry and control systems to third parties; that unit was then sold for an unknown amount – but given that revenues were $43m, probably north of $200m
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• Why do social networks drive us a little mad?
• Why does angry content seem to dominate what we see?
• How much of a role do algorithms play in affecting what we see and do online?
• What can we do about it?
• Did Facebook have any inkling of what was coming in Myanmar in 2016?

Read Social Warming, my latest book, and find answers – and more.


Errata, corrigenda and ai no corrida: none notified